Saturday, December 28, 2019

Whether a Cut in Corp Tax Rate be Beneficial Essay

Whether a Cut in Corp Tax Rate be Beneficial Doesn’t everyone want to keep what he/she has earned? It has always been somewhat tradition for Americans to work hard for their money, only to see some of it squandered away come tax time. Wouldn’t a tax cut, for some, be like a divine, heavenly grace? As the year 2001 unfolds and George W. Bush begins his presidency, income tax rates have, in fact, become a concern. President Bush is pushing for an income tax bill that will reduce the tax brackets from 15%, 28%, 31%, 36%, and 39.6% to a new bracket in 2006 of 10%, 15%, 25%, and 33%. A cut in individual income taxes would benefit most Americans and is well deserved. However, there is no plan to cut the corporate tax rates yet. A†¦show more content†¦If the risk is too great and a feeling of uneasiness sets in on Wall Street, investors may begin to sell that firm’s stock, dropping the market price per share and possibly the value of the firm itself. The reaso ning? Simple: if the price of the share decreases, then there is a possibility that when the time came for a favorable risk adjustment, investors would be paying a lower price per share than the firm is really worth. The amount of equity that they would receive from their outstanding shares would decrease. Also, if the tax rates rise and the company has been deemed riskier than before, some insiders may begin to sell their shares of the firm. When this hits the market, it sends a negative signal to investors to sell, which will dump excessive shares onto the market. Conversely, if the degree of risk is not in excessive measures, investors might purchase more shares in hopes that the increased risk will yield a higher rate of return; a classic example of the risk-return trade-off. Along with market performance, a firm may need to adapt its financial activities as well. These activities all relate to the way the firm is organized, in particular, its capital structure. Included in capital structure is the aspect of convertible bonds. These bonds can be converted to a specified amount of common stock. The downside of these convertible stocks and bonds is that they have the potential of diluting the Earnings Per Share (EPS)Show MoreRelatedTimken Case Study Essay4797 Words   |  20 Pagesflow analysis using WACC to calculate the value of Torrington worth with synergies. The value turned out to be more than the estimated minimum value of the target. The final recommendation is to proceed with the acquisition as planed which would be beneficial to the Timken. 1. Introduction Timken was considering expanding and they sought Torrington Company from Ingersoll- Rand as a worthy acquisition. Timken and Torrington share similar business operations and Timken thought with the combined 100Read MoreBuckwold Chapter 11 Solutions10718 Words   |  43 Pagesrather than from the sale of shares at a profit.† Is this statement true? Explain. 6. â€Å"A shareholder may have a primary relationship as well as secondary relationships with the corporation. The difference between the two relationships relates to the tax treatment of income flows between the corporation and the shareholder.† Explain. 7. Corporations and individuals determine their taxable income in different ways. What are the differences? 8. How are the net capital losses and non-capital lossesRead MoreThorough Business Enterprises Outline Essay18871 Words   |  76 Pages1. Superimposed on obligations contained in the contract iii. Statutes 1. Vary depending on type of business entity 2. Regarding internal governance, liability, tax iv. Regulatory law 1. Including federal and state securities law v. Tort law vi. Environmental law vii. Labor / employmentRead MoreEssay about Sealed Air Case3274 Words   |  14 PagesSealed Air Corp. Leveraged Recapitalization (1989) Case Study Abstract The following report outlines the basics of a leveraged recapitalization, the benefits and consequences of a leveraged recapitalization, and ultimately Gator Consulting’s recommendations for when and how to use leveraged recapitalization. Much of this discussion is explained by citing a case study involving Sealed Air Corporation as a way to demonstrate a specific positive instance in the use of leveraged recapitalizationRead MoreIjm Land16824 Words   |  68 Pages3%) and rendering of other services (0.2%). Moreover, The Group’s revenue and profit were steady increase year by year and the demand was increasing because of the ETP and the economics of Malaysia such as GDP has growing steady while the inflation rate also remain moderated. In line with the stable economic environment, improved labour market conditions and rising inflationary fears, the property market continued on a growth trend that only moderated towards the end of the year. In 2011, the MalaysianRead MoreMerger and Acquisition Case18720 Words   |  75 Pages1997, trucks, including minivans, accounted for about two-thirds of Chrysler’s vehicle sales in the United States and cars accounted for about one-third. Chrysler’s trucks included sport-utility vehicles, such as the Jeep 3 4 John Pepper, â€Å"Why Eaton Cut the Deal,† Detroit News, 7 May 1998, Susan E. Kuhn, â€Å"Auto Stocks: Today’s Big Steal,† Fortune (25 November 1996): 204–205. -3- UV0085 Wrangler, Jeep Cherokee, and the Dodge Durango; pick-up trucks such as the Dodge Ram; andRead MoreCountrywide Subprime Lending Crisis4911 Words   |  20 Pagesborrowers pay premium above the prime market rate in order to compensate the lender for bearing greater default risk. In addition, subprime borrowers pay higher origination and continuous costs, such as applications fees, appraisal fees, mortgage insurance payments, late fees and fines for delinquent payments. Subprime Mortgage market Since mid 1990s, the subprime mortgage market has grown rapidly experiencing a phenomenal 23% compound annual growth rate to 2006. The total subprime loan originationsRead MoreRisk Management10258 Words   |  42 PagesDerivatives, as a risk management tool, are only a small part of the integrated risk management process. Moreover, a proper risk management strategy does not involve speculation, or betting on the future price of oil, corn, currencies, or interest rates, and indeed is antithetical to such speculation. Instead, the goal of integrated risk management is to maximize value by shaping the firms risk profile, shedding some risks, while retaining others. Companies have three fundamental ways of implementingRead MoreStock Track Report7574 Words   |  31 Pagesdiversity in our portfolio. We invested in mutual funds which captured different types markets such as: the US stock market, the US bond market, global markets, and emerging markets. Besides stocks and mutual funds, we also invested in bonds, but the low rate of return on bonds limited the amount of funds we allocated to them. We spent time looking over the financial statements of the companies in which we were thinking of investing. After our analysis was finished, we made our initial investments. WeRead MoreValuation of Integrated Oil Gas Companies Msc Thesis33042 Words   |  133 PagesOil Gas Company’s common stock. By applying and comparing DCF, SOP and Real Options based valuation methodologies with the aims of establishing both, an absolute share price value and relative value for the sample representatives of for Exxon Mobil Corp and BP Plc, the paper highlights key input parameters for each methodology and discusses the key differences in the outputs of the models. The study finds that the market relies on the Discounted Cash flow Valuation methodology and that the Real Option

Friday, December 20, 2019

An Insight Into The Business Profile Of Forever21 Company...

Forever21 Clothing Company Case Report Executive Summary This paper provides an insight into the business profile of Forever21 Company. An analysis of the company’s objectives includes competitive strategies, external and business environment, the strengths and weaknesses of Forever21 as a major clothing company. This study evaluates the strategies employed, the alternative possible strategies or market play and the best selected strategic move that Forever21 may bank on to expand its capacity and exploit the opportunities in aggressive and temporal markets. This analysis factors in marketing methods, strategies, competitive advantages, disadvantages and methods of how Forever21 can capitalize on these factors and move forward toward greater paradigms of success. Forever21 are a middle level multi-billion clothing company that provides products affordable to young ladies in their teens across the world. This company has multiple retail stores and keeps opening new outlets in various countries; various market segments while other non -performing outlets close shop. Forever21 has its major market niche in ladies wear for young ladies who have relatively small incomes, which makes their disposable incomes on the lower side. Forever21’s business opportunity is to fill this gap and it has. Through comparatives strategies, Forever21 has managed to source some of the cheapest labor in the clothing market by outsourcing production to Asian markets. This gave them the advantage ofShow MoreRelatedMacro-Environment Analysis of Italy and 12 C Frameworks4985 Words   |  20 Pagesthings that affect the organisation inside. It is important for a company to identify the possible political risk s in the country. Political risk is based on changes in the political environment that may have a direct impact on business. The political factors have influence on the tax that the business has to paid, the currency of the country and the business procedures that need to be carried out in order to be able to open a business i n Italy. The economic factors are indicative of the economicRead MoreBusiness Profile Of Forever 21 Company Essay2123 Words   |  9 PagesExecutive Summary This paper provides an insight into the business profile of Forever 21 Company. An analysis of the company’s objectives, competitive strategies, external and business environment, the strengths and weaknesses of Forever 21 as a major clothing company. This study evaluates the strategies employed, the alternative possible strategies or market play and the best selected strategic move that Forever may bank on to expand its capacity and exploit the opportunities in aggressive and temporal

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Dangerous Woman by Ariana Grande free essay sample

On May 20, 2016, Ariana Grande dropped her hotly anticipated album, â€Å"Dangerous Woman.† While Grande’s first two albums show the pop star dreaming in a blissful trance about her bae, this latest album portrays an assertive woman who is independent and knows herself. The intro, â€Å"Moonlight,† with infusions of piano and violin, is really soft on your ears. Just the kind of song you’d want to hear on your wedding day. Next comes the title track. It’s sensuous, with smoky lyrics paired with a catchy, thumping rhythm. Many critics believe that â€Å"Dangerous Woman† is about change and self-assertion, and the song definitely has a feminist vibe. Grande premiered â€Å"Be Alright† along with â€Å"Dangerous Woman† on â€Å"Saturday Night Live.† It speaks of the hardships in a relationship and how the hard times are golden because they lead to better days. On â€Å"Into You,† Ariana uses her vocal cords like nobod y’s business. After her sophomore album, My Everything, got some critiques stating that she had not quite found the sound that she wants to go with yet. But in a world where Taylor Swift can go from country to pop princess, who needs one distinct sound to be successful in the music industry? This is evident as Grande dabbles in the world of reggae in fan-favorite ‘Side to Side (feat. Nicki Minaj)’ and then in Soul/RB on ‘Leave Me Lonely (feat. Macy Gray).’ Sultry songs such as ‘Leave Me Lonely (feat. Lil Wayne)’ and title track ‘Dangerous Woman’ give the album a feel that neither of her previous have had with a more mature, yet oddly soothing feel to both. Maybe that had something to do with Grande’s perfect delivery of the lyrics as well as the superb production applied to both tracks. And what artist would dare to release an album right before summer hits without some turn-up-the-radio, roll-down-the-windows-and-jam tunes? Grande delive rs these kinds of songs that you will hear blasting at the beach, on boats, and out of car windows with ease. I can already tell that I will be hearing ‘Greedy’, ‘Be Alright’, ‘Bad Decisions’, and second-single ‘Into You’ all summer long – and then some! But the most pleasing part of the album, especially to fans that have followed Grande over the course of her career, is the first track, ‘Moonlight.† The 1950’s doo-wop feel brings backs the vibes that Grande brought with her debut album, Yours Truly – a sound that fans have known her to love for years. The sounds of her beginnings continuing to show up alongside songs clearly showing Grande’s evolution as an artist are refreshing for a long-time fan such as myself. Not to mention the vocals on the tune are near flawless. Ariana Grande continues to prove that she is a force to be reckoned with in the young music industry. With her powerful vo cals and ability to deliver in multiple genres, this woman is clearly dangerous. All I have left to say is that the other young artists in the industry better watch out – Ariana is coming and she isn’t backing down anytime soon.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Shitty First Drafts free essay sample

Shitty First Drafts This article is all about writing first drafts and how helpful they can be. The author of this wonderful article is Ms. Anne Lamott who was previously a restaurant critic and she has also written several novels. She believes that first drafts are meant to be a mess, she even refers to them as the â€Å"child’s draft†. Ms. Lamott would stress an unbelievable amount over writing an article about a restaurant. She would always start out by visiting the restaurant with some friends and then taking notes about her friends’ reactions to the food and the other details of the dining experience. After her night out, she would take those notes and just pour them all out into a pile on her first draft. Then she would come back the next day to find that some of that mess makes sense so she pulls out bits and parts that she can use in the article. We will write a custom essay sample on Shitty First Drafts or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Anne then adds a little more to it, then rereads it, and then sends it out to be printed. I love writing rough drafts because I feel like I can pool all of my thoughts into one place. It’s a lot easier to write when you can see all of your thoughts in one place so that you can pick out all of the things that don’t fit or that don’t make sense. I now realize why teachers always made it an assignment to turn in a rough draft, they all wanted to see if we were able to pull a great paper out of a flood of ideas and facts. First drafts are a necessity to writing papers and it separates great papers from amazing stories.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Why You Should Never Take a Job Below Your Skill Level

Why You Should Never Take a Job Below Your Skill Level Many often find themselves considering jobs below their skill level in tough employment markets. Faced with ongoing unemployment, or the option of part-time or temporary work, one might think that taking a full-time job, regardless of whether it falls below your level of qualifications, is the best option. But it turns out that there is scientific proof that working in a job below your skill level harms your later chances of getting hired for a better-paying job more appropriate to your qualifications. Sociologist David Pedulla at  The University of Texas at Austin examined the question of how  part-time jobs, temporary jobs, and jobs below a persons skill level affect future employability. Specifically, he wondered how this employment variable would influence whether applicants received a callback (via phone or email) from a prospective employer. Pedulla also wondered whether gender might interact with the employment variable to influence the outcome. To examine these questions Pedulla conducted a now fairly common experimenthe created fake resumes and submitted them to firms that were hiring. He submitted 2,420 fake  applications to 1,210 job listings posted in five major cities across the U.S.New  York City, Atlanta, Chicago, Los  Angeles, and Bostonand advertised on a major national job-posting website. Pedulla constructed the study to examine four different kinds of jobs, including  sales, accounting/bookkeeping,  project management/management, and  administrative/clerical positions. He tailored the fake resumes and applications so that each demonstrated a six-year history of employment and professional experience relevant to the occupation. In order to address his research questions, he varied the applications by gender, and also by employment status for the previous year. Some applicants were listed as having been employed full-time, while others listed part-time or temporary work, working in a job below the appl icants skill level, and others were unemployed for the year prior to the current application. The careful construction and execution of this study allowed Pedulla to find clear, compelling, and statistically significant results that show that  applicants who were positioned as working below their skill level, regardless of gender, received only half as many callbacks as those who were working in full-time jobs the previous yeara callback rate of just five percent compared to a little more than ten percent (also regardless of gender). The study also revealed that while part-time employment did not negatively affect the employability of women, it did for men, resulting in a callback rate of less than five percent. Being unemployed in the previous year had a modestly negative impact on women, reducing the callback rate to 7.5 percent, and was much more negative for men, who were called back at a rate of just 4.2 percent. Pedulla found that temporary work did not affect the callback rate. In the study,  published in the April 2016  issue of  American Sociological Review  as  Penalized or Protected? Gender and the Consequences of Nonstandard and Mismatched Employment Histories,  Pedulla remarked, ...these results indicate that part-time work and skills underutilization are as scarring for male workers as a year of unemployment. These results should serve as a cautionary tale to anyone considering taking a job bellow their skill level. While it might pay the bills in the short-term, it can significantly hamper ones ability to return to the relevant skill-level and pay grade at a later date. Doing so literally cuts in half your chances of getting called for an interview. Why might this be the case? Pedulla conducted a follow-up survey with 903 people in charge of hiring at a variety of companies across the nation in order to find out. He asked them  about their perceptions of applicants with each kind of employment history, and how likely they would be to recommend each kind of candidate to an interview. The results show that employers believe that men who are employed part-time or in positions below their skill level are less committed and less competent than men in other employment situations. Those surveyed also believed that women working below their skill level were less competent than others, but did not believe them to be less committed. Couched in the valuable insights offered by the findings of this study is a reminder of the troubling ways in which gender stereotypes shape perceptions and expectations of people in the workplace. Because part-time work is considered normal for women  it has a feminine connotation, even though it is increasingly common for all people under advanced capitalism. The results of this study, which show that men are penalized for part-time work when women are not, suggest that part-time work signals a failure of masculinity among men, signaling to employers incompetence and a lack of commitment. This is a disturbing reminder that the sword of gender bias does in fact cut both ways.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Master Degree Proposal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Master Degree Proposal - Essay Example All tourists visiting Egypt require passports and visas, except for Middle East countries. Tourists from Africa need to test for cholera and yellow fever .  In order to understand Egypt’s government’s role in tourism, it is important to look at the political system, the visa requirement, and the restriction on area tourist can visit. The principles of constitutionalism which is popular sovereignty, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, fundamental rights has not been strictly followed in case of Egypt. The rule in Egypt has not been â€Å"popular† sovereignty rule. The president was not elected democratically. Since the government was not socially elected therefore â€Å"limited† government does no have any meaning. The separation of powers was selectively done. As far as fundamental rights are concerned it was seldom followed. The Great Pyramid of Giza, build 4000 years ago, Great Sphinx, the largest statue of couchant sphinx are the main attractions for tourists in Giza. Mount Sinai in Sinai Peninsula attracts tourists for its coral reefs and biblical history. Luxor, city of ancient site of Thebes houses the world’s greatest open air museum. Saqqara complex, an ancient burial ground has numerous pyramids and mastabas. Egypt is considered an unsafe country due to various wars in the area. Thus the Government is playing an active role to bring back the positive perceptions about the country. Tourism sector of Egypt has always been a stronghold of the Government with involvement of the private sector. After the revolution in 1952 the Egyptian tourism industry was nationalized and the largest private hotels were expropriated (Richter & Steiner 2007). Small sectors were in the hands of the private sector. The largest hotels existing then were handed over to international hotel chains like Hilton and Shearaton. During 1967 the Ministry of Tourism was established to administer the tourism sector of the eco nomy. In 1971, there was introduction of free zones, giving public ventures to collaborate with the foreign investors (Ibrahim 2009). President Anwar Sadat’s Open Door Policy thereafter led the Government to feel that tourism could lead to economic prosperity of the nation. The structural change in the tourism sector can be attributed to the pro liberalization Minister of Tourism of 1980, Faud Sultan. He opened up the tourism sector to foreign funds, which infused fresh blood to the poorly performing hotels. The first wave did not create much impact; however a second wave of liberalization happened in the late 1980’s. New airline rules allowed charter flights to land directly in tourist areas. This led to a surge in demand from earlier times. During 1985 the Egyptian Government faced balance of payments crisis. To improve the economy’s position the Government received exclusive planning responsibility for tourism development and was granted the power to coordina te the provision of infrastructure in all areas designated for tourism development by the Prime Ministerial decree No. 993 of 1988 (Richter & Steiner, 2007). The liberalization led to lot of investment by the private sector on tourism and by 1993, major proportion of investment was from the private sector (Gray 1998). Law No. 230 of 1989, reshaped the legal and institutional environment for the tourism sector. This law guarantees that private companies can secure operating licenses. Capital investment in desert areas was given tax exemption for a

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Community Hospital Database Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Community Hospital Database - Assignment Example Moreover, we have the physician table. This documents the details of the physician. On that note, it contains five fields, namely; the name of the physician, specialty, id of physician, date and the phone number. It is worth noting that decisive details’ pertaining to the fields is shown below. Furthermore, we also have the room utilization table. Apparently, this is mandated with the task of storing information regarding the accommodation of patients in the hospital. It contains four fields, which are the patient #, location, accommodation and the date discharged. It’s worth noting that the data pertaining to the type, fields’ size among others are shown below. Apparently, it is evident that the use of technology is essential in the smooth running of the Mountain View community hospital. Notably, it was critical for the incorporation of the database system in order to aid in various processes, for instance, the capturing and storage of the patient information among other important information required in a hospital setting(Demetriades Dinos 34). In actual fact, this was reached after a study was conducted in the hospital to establish some of the ways in which services can be improved in this hospital. First and foremost, in order for the above database system to be able to capture certain information, for instance, the marital status, gender, occupation, salary or the insurance coverage, the appropriate field must be added to the room utilization table and form(Demetriades Dinos 56). However, it is worth noting that the type data in each field should be specified accordingly to avoid errors that might arise.  

Monday, November 18, 2019

Economist Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Economist - Assignment Example Marshall started with metaphysics, specifically "the philosophical foundation of knowledge, especially in relation to theology." The Metaphysics led Alfred to ethics, specifically a Sidgwickian version of utilitarianism; ethics, on the other hand, led Alfred to economics. This was so because economics played an essential role in the provision of the preconditions for the improvement of the working class. Marshall’s ethical views continued to be a dominant force in his thinking even though he turned to economics (Marshall & Palgrave Connect, 2013). During his time, Marshall was viewed as the most influential economist. In his book Principles of Economics (1881), Marshall brought out the ideas of supply and demand, marginal utility and cost of production into a single whole. As an extension to what he had done, he brought up the elasticity price of demand. He in addition, contributed to the economic welfare both consumer surplus and producer surplus. He developed the standard demand and supply graph which demonstrates a number of basics that regards demand and supply including market equilibrium, law of diminishing returns, supply and demand curves, law of marginal returns, interrelationship between price and quantity with respect to demand and supply, and the ideas of producer and consumer surpluses (Marshall & Palgrave Connect, 2013). Economists now use this model in various forms using different variables in demonstrating several other economic principles. Ideas and theories that could only be explained in words can now be r epresented visually with the help of this model. Marshall’s models are now critical throughout the study of economics simply because they allow fundamentals or theories being explained to be represented clearly and concisely (Marshall & Palgrave Connect, 2013). Marshall had a vision of dramatic social change which involves the sharp reduction of inequality and the elimination of poverty. He saw that it was

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Use Of Sound Design In Films

The Use Of Sound Design In Films Rationale/Research to Date: The origins of the term sound designer came from Walter Murchs work on the film Apocalypse Now, where he had the full responsibility of creating the films entire soundtrack. (Holman, 2002) Traditionally the term sound designer encompasses the traditional processes of both editing and mixing. (Holman, 2002, p.192). Nowadays sound designers roles can range from creating individual sound effects to the responsibility of creating the overall soundtrack for a film. (Whittington, 2007) Three of the key players who have all developed and created the job of a sound designer are: Walter Murch, (American Graffiti, The Conversation, Apocalypse Now) Gary Rydstrom, (The Terminator, Ghost Busters II, Jurassic Park) and Ben Burtt (Star Wars, E.T., Wall-E). They have created a standard for sound designers to follow and made iconic sounds recognised by many, for example: the classic light saber hum from Star Wars, Ben Burrt made by blending the sound of his TV set and an old 35mm projector. (, n.b.) Paul Ottosson has been acknowledged for his sound design and supervising sound editing achievements with Oscar and BAFTA nominations. (Koppl, 2010) His oeuvre covers films such as: Spider-Man 2 and 3, S.W.A.T., 2012 and The Hurt Locker. Winning two Oscars in 2010 for Best Achievement in Sound and Best Achievement in Sound Editing (, n.b.) for the latter. His roles on the The Hurt Locker were Sound Designer, Sound Re-recording Mixer and Supervising Sound Editor. Ottossons mission, set by director Kathryn Bigelow, was to re-create the gritty acoustics of the Iraq war as authentically as possible. (Caranicas, 2010) From the first meeting the director talked about how important sound was going to be because her original intention was to have no music at all in the movie. (Ottoson, 2010) Ottosson was given a massive challenge and full responsibilities, once the picture was cut it was his job to create an emotional arc and to build tension throughout the film using sound design where traditionally music would be used. As David Sonnenschein explains The most common nonliteral sound to accentuate character personality or emotion is music, while more and more use is being made of sound effects and ambience to support this area. (Sonnenschein, 2001, p.178) His treatment of the overall soundtrack of the film blurs the boundaries between music and sound design (Koppl, 2010.) when created effectively it is difficult to judge whether it is music or sound design and Paul Ottosson uses some unusual techniques to achieve the desired effect. This investigation will discuss and analyse the unusual and advanced sound design techniques that Paul Ottosson deploys. It will critically evaluate how these techniques; heighten emotion, tension and realism by transporting the audience into the centre of the chaos in the Iraq war. Through exploring Paul Ottossons sound design in The Hurt Locker should affirm the importance of the role sound design can play. Knowledge gained by undertaking this study should benefit future sound design projects. Objectives: To analysis of the use of point of audition sound; to immerse the audience into each of the main characters feelings. To compare and contrast the individual sound design treatment for the three guys in the EOD (Explosive Ordinance Disposal Team) unit, how it differs between them, enabling character identification and the effects they have on the audience. To investigate the use of Off-Screen sound to create a sonic-point-of-view to give the audience the perspective of being at war in Baghdad. To explore how Paul Ottosson creates a sound arc using foley, sound effects, backgrounds and human breathing to build tension in scenes where traditionally music would be used. To compare of the sound design from the first bomb-deactivation scene and the second bomb-deactivation scene where SS James has taken control of the EOD unit. To provide a detailed comparison of the sound design used in the opening scenes of The Hurt Locker and Saving Private Ryan. Critical Writing Example: It is interesting to note that two films, The Hurt Locker and Saving Private Ryan are both films that strive for realism and use point-of-audition sound in a subjective sense to put the audience in the characters shoes. During the first bomb de-activation scene in The Hurt Locker, Staff Sergeant Thompson puts on the anti-bomb suit and starts walking towards an IED. The audience can hear the sound of him breathing. This establishes a primary connection with the character as it is his breathing the audience can hear and it also creates a secondary emotional link with the audience. The audience are able to connect with this sound and empathise as heavy breathing is a feeling or situation most humans have felt at some point in their lives possibly after a tense or shocking experience. The emotion is heightened as the sound designer makes a conscious decision to alter the breathing pattern as the character gets closer to the danger. This effect could be compared to a rise in pitch and amplitude of a stringed instrument heightening tension in a scene musically. In contrast, during the Omaha beach scene in Saving Private Ryan Gary Rydstrom manipulated the sound of the ocean to try and simulate the traumatic shell-shocked state character Tom Hanks feels. Rydstrom explains how taking the sound out of the battle became an interesting device to get inside someones head (Rydstrom, 2007) In both examples point-of-audition sounds are used to immerse the audience into the characters inner feelings. The difference is the way sound in Saving Private Ryan takes the audience into the characters head; in order to share and experience his feeling and this effect momentarily removes the audience from the on-going situation around him. Whereas, in The Hurt Locker whilst the audience are similarly immersed inside the characters head, they are also fully aware of the environment and action going on around the character, due to the background sound continuing so that it can still be heard. If the sound design techniques were swapped in the films, it is likely that neither of them would achieve the sound designers desired effect. For example, it is essential for the background sounds to remain in The Hurt Locker as these are used to create the tension required for the scene. Both of these examples illustrate the execution of point of audition sound tailored to both the individual film and for specific scenes within them. The study will further explore such techniques and will similarly illustrate the finds by use of specific examples.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Ethical Standards :: Ethics

Ethical standards are extremely valuable because when no guidelines set in charge there would be all categories of people who can poison the criminal justice system. "If no standards are set the ponds within the system that are upheld to carry out justice", would be able to run ramped and just do whatever, now when we put in charge a checks and balance system every person is held accountable for their own action. If we enforce the ethics, and set standards for all levels then all people would be screened and checked so that some of the loopholes could be found. Now are we going to stop all unethical issues no! Nevertheless, the system would allow use to at least slow it and let it be known that it will not be tolerated. Ethical standard in our criminal justice are extremely beneficial because our beliefs and values regarding right and wrong, are shaped by code of ethical standards establish by criminal justice agency. Code of ethics also established an organizational objective and rationale for duties and actions regarding both organization mission and the outside world. Ethical standard also set the Value in which organizational purpose is defined like to rudiments of appropriateness, worth or importance. (Pollock, 2010) Ethical standard also specify Values in which alternative or judgment of the agency must consider in which high priority are right on them. Ethical standard are based on entirely Justifications for the law that serves as a tool of behavior change, or social engineering. When Laws are used to control behavior, it must have totem of ethical standard in which sanctions are provided morally. In addition, by teaching people what behaviors are acceptable and what ones are not ethical sta ndard must be used. As Law becomes society value so does ethical standard because every person is a value to society, and society has a right to protect this value, and even against his or her will. (Pollock, 2010) Concerning terrorism, the issues of ethical standard are extremely valuable because persons do not commit the act of terror in isolation. Terrorism requires context, victim, and ethical standard suggest that we need to understand the conditions and environments that encourage people to become terrorist. (Micheal C. Braswell, 2005) By setting ethical standard, we not only become aware and responsive to moral and ethical issues. We also begin developing critical thinking and analytical expertise. By developing these skills, we recognize our goal as an organization and we expand our capability and grow personally responsibly.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Solving Black Inner City Poverty

FILM QUESTIONNAIRE #2 DUE DATE: 10/8/10 NAME: Solving Black Inner-City Poverty: William Julius Wilson, Films for the Humanities, Inc. , 1994 [30 minutes] 1. What has been the main cause of the rise of concentrated poverty in the urban ghetto since the 1970s according to Wilson? (4 points) Wilson argues that one of the main cause of the rise of concentrated poverty in the urban ghetto since the 1970s is the fact of segregation. In the 1970s the poor, middle class and upper class all lived in the same neighborhoods. This gave the poor more opportunities to find jobs through interaction with the wealthier tier of citizens.Nowadays, the less fortunate cluster in the ghettos and create their own life-ways, which makes it increasingly difficult to get out of the vicious circle. The schools in the neighborhood are not adequate, there are less opportunities and they cant live up to the morals and values that they would like to, but form their own. Another major factor to why the poor stay po or is the fact that single-mom households have increased from 20% in the 1970s to 51% today and the struggle it is for them to get out of the ghetto being what they are.In his book The Declining Significance of Race he further examines the question; â€Å"Why do poverty and unequal opportunity persist in the lives of so many African Americans? † In response, he traces the history and current state of powerful structural factors impacting African Americans, such as discrimination in laws, policies, hiring, housing, and education. He argues against either/or politicized views of poverty among African Americans that either focus blame solely on cultural factors or only on unjust structural factors.He tries to demonstrate the importance of understanding not only the independent contributions of social structure and culture, but also how they interact to shape different group outcomes that embody racial inequality. 2. What are some elements of the informal sex code that governs se xual relations in the ghetto? (3 points) Wilson contends that there is an â€Å"informal sexcode† within the ghettos and that the ratio of births among young women is increasing. Men gain prestige by the numbers of girlfriends as well as children they accumulate.And since black males are â€Å"unmarriable† when they do not have a job to support the family, the women end up alone with several children. Wilson was one of the first to enunciate at length the â€Å"spatial mismatch† theory for the development of a ghetto underclass. As industrial jobs disappeared in cities in the wake of global economic restructuring, and hence urban unemployment increased, women found it unwise to marry the fathers of their children, since the fathers would not be breadwinners. 3. Wilson advocates universal type programs for dealing with the plight of the inner city poor.What is meant by universal programs? Why is he in favor of universal as opposed to race-specific solutions? (4 p oints) A Universal Program is a program that addresses all races. Wilson favors Universal programs for the fact that no American citizen should be living in poverty. As of the time of the interview two thirds of the poor within the US population was white. The whites were also hit hard by the de-industrialization, not only the black. Wilson argues that we should talk in Universal terms, about programs that are there to help all Americans get a job.The way to reach the poor is by introducing an alternative avenue to success, they feel neglected and not involved in the white middle/upper-class society so in return they have created their own sphere where they set the rules and where perceived relative deprivation is high. Where the poor blacks have nurtured hatred towards the white middleclass for doing well. 4. Wilson himself grew up in a poor family in rural Pennsylvania. Why does he think he was able to escape poverty against the odds? (3 points)Wilson grew up in a poor family in r ural Pennsylvania but still managed to escape poverty since he had a very good role model, namely his Aunt Janice. His aunt (with his mother behind her) pushed Wilson to get an education and took him on trips, to museums and gave him books. She got him on his feet and he took over from there. He was also raised in rural Pennsylvania and not in an inner city, which is a big difference. In the inner city you have a sense of crowdedness, a high rate of crimes, easy access to drugs, and the sense of being imprisoned, which you do not have in the rural parts of the country.This gives you a different outlook on things according to Wilson. 5. In the article we read (â€Å"A Black City Within the White†), Loic Wacquant formulates a strong critique of Wilson and other proponents of the â€Å"underclass† thesis. What is the crux of his critique? Do you agree with Wilson or Wacquant? Why? (6 points) Wilson argues that the significance of race is waning, and an African-American's class is comparatively more important in determining his or her life chances.Wacquant, on the other hand, argues that a ghetto is not simply a conglomeration of poor families or a spatial accumulation of undesirable social conditions but an institutional form. He points out that it is the instrument of ethnoracial closure and power whereby a population deemed disreputable and dangerous is at once secluded and controlled. Furthermore, he disputes the fact that ghettos were ever simply desolate places of ecological disrepair and social hardship. He points out that there was – and still are – manifestations of a power relation between the dominant white society and its subordinate black caste.I would argue that Wilsons’s argument that the labor market problems African Americans face today are largely due to deindustrialization and consequent skills mismatches. On one hand, African Americans never were especially dependent on jobs in the manufacturing sector, so dei ndustrialization in itself has not had a major impact on African Americans, and that, on the other hand, the relative labor market success of poorly-educated immigrants in the postindustrial era shows that there is no absence of jobs for those ith few skills. To me, Wilson puts forth the attitude that a persons patterns and norms of behavior tend to be shaped by those with which he or she has had the most frequent or sustained contact and interaction. First, he seems to argue that external influences or differential associations are on of the key pillars to his theory, secondly, the out-migration of middle-class minorities, and thirdly, the problem of distance and spatial mismatch – between inner city residents and places of potential employment.He also attributed the increasing rate of inner city marriage disintegration to consistent states of joblessness. I must say that I think Wilson does not give enough emphasis to the role of race. Racial segregation is much more crucia l to the development of concentrated poverty and any resulting neighborhood disintegration than black middle-class out-migration, while social class segregation is a very real factor, it is notably intensified when racial segregation is high. Wilson is not acknowledging current discriminatory practices, in my opinion.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Characterization of E

Characterization of E Introduction E-commerce involves trading through the Internet. This is as a result of great familiarity in the Internet use all over the world. The Internet is being used greatly in the market, a thing that has contributed to growth in the world economies. The Internet is being used as a tool in advertising products and services in the market. It is also used by sellers as a channel of providing information to the consumers on their products and services.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Characterization of E-Commerce Traffic specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This ensures that the buyers are well informed about the products before they make decisions to buy them. The power of servers providing e-commerce has been increasing but these sites have not been able to improve the services provided to the users. This has been leading to loss of revenue due to slow connectivity and thus effort should be put in order to perfect these sites (Floyd, 1986). E-commerce Sites In 2000, e-commerce generated $132 billion more than twice the money generated in 1999. With this it is clear that e-commerce is generating enough revenue (Glushko et al, 2001). Thus, it is important that the availability and performance of the e-commerce sites be improved and their performance monitored closely to ensure their efficiency. There are two types of e-commerce sites, those are, business to business and business to consumers. Business to business provides services to corporations while business to consumers provide services to individuals. The main difference between these two sites is the user population. The business to business site is usually restricted to corporations for security purpose while business to consumers usually has high population of users. The configuration of the general server is similar in both sites (Kant, 1992). Agreements of the services between corporations and individuals must be honored in order to r etain and gain customers. Performance and availability of the servers are two important things that must be checked for effective e-commerce. E-commerce environment server consists of two parts, those are, front end and back end network. Front end consists of web and application services accessible by the users over Internet while back end consists of security fire walls and the data base servers (Glushko et al, 2001). Managerial Implications Work load implication of e-commerce servers affects its performance for it is usually high. Server overload affects the performance and availability of e-commerce services and in return it reduces the income that would have been gained. E-commerce traffic greatly affects the usage of Internet for business and thus it is important that the ways of controlling this traffic be put in place (Kant, 1992).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Load balancing is a common method that is being used to improve the performance of e-commerce servers. Understanding the workload of these servers is significant in efforts to eliminate traffic in e-commerce. Understanding of the work load in a typical e-commerce server is important in order to be able to develop schemes of eliminating traffic (Glushko et al, 2001). Another managerial implication is performance implication. This is usually as a result of web traffic, which leads to on/off processes. The response rate is very slow in e-commerce. The response times in e-commerce is believed to be heavy-tailed in nature though the response files are always of the same size. This is due to inclusion of images and video files in the overall traffic. In e-commerce, response time is dependent on processing and transfer time (Floyd, 1986). Reference List Floyd, A. (1986). Short-Term File Reference Patterns in a UNIX Environment. Technical Report, Computer Science Department, Universit y of Rochester. Glushko et al, (2001). An XML Framework for Agent-Based E-Commerce. Communications of ACM. New York: Prentice Hall Kant, K. (1992). Introduction to Computer System Performance Evaluation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Report Card Comments for Elementary Teachers

Report Card Comments for Elementary Teachers When writing report card comments, focus on the students existing strengths and look for ways to motivate the student to improve in areas of weakness by providing advice. The following phrases and statements can help you tailor your comments for each specific student. Writing report card comments designed to instill ambition within students can empower them to make positive changes. Try to provide specific examples whenever you can to make your report card comments more personal. Key Takeaways: Report Card Comments Stress positive attributesUse words such as requires, struggles, or seldom to show when a child needs extra helpIntroduce areas in need of work in a way that wont make parents feel like youre criticizing the student unnecessarily, for example, list negative comments under a comments section titled goals to work on Supportive and detailed comments can provide parents with ways to partner with you to make students feel empowered to do better Attitude and Personality Phrases should present information n a straightforward manner about the students classroom temperament, giving suggestions for improvements when possible: Has a good attitude toward school.Is an enthusiastic learner who seems to enjoy school.Strives to reach his full potential.Shows initiative and thinks things through for herself.Exhibits a positive outlook and attitude in the classroom.Is a sweet and cooperative child.Is self-confident and has excellent manners.Is honest and trustworthy in dealings with others.Is developing a better attitude toward schoolwork this year.Needs to improve classroom attitude by learning to better collaborate with classmates.Needs to work on sharing more with others and being a better friend. Comments should be both celebratory and constructive when appropriate. Give examples of what works well for students, recognize areas in which they truly excel, and provide information not only on what needs to be improved but how the student can improve in those areas. Continues to make nice progress this year concerning...As we discussed in our last parent-teacher conference, [your childs] attitude toward the basic skills is...I will continue to need your help and support in order for [your child] to overcome his attitude and social difficulties. He will find school a much more pleasant place if he/she can make a positive effort in this area.[Your childs] attitude has continued to improve. Thank you for your support and cooperation.[Your child] has shown a good attitude about trying to improve in [this subject]. I am hoping this recent interest and improvement will continue throughout the school year. Participation and Behavior Spend time reflecting not just on grades but also the students actions in class. Participation is often a significant portion of the grading model, and your comments should address the level of a students participation, such as remains an active learner throughout the school day and is enthusiastic about participating. Comments should also address a students behavior, both positive and negative. Takes an active role in discussions.Needs to actively participate in classroom discussion.Listens attentively to the responses of others.Is courteous and shows good manners in the classroom.Consistently cooperates with the teacher and other students.Is kind and helpful to everyone in the classroom.Caring, kind, and eager to please.Needs to listen to directions.Needs to work on staying focused and on task.Needs to work on not distracting others during class. Time Management and Work Habits Students who are always well-prepared for class and have strong organization study habits can benefit from being reminded that this simple, yet important, skill is recognized and appreciated. Similarly, students who arent prepared, rush their work, or need to stay on task more need to know that this behavior is noticed and is not condoned. Your comments can provide clear recognition of skills and give parents insight into areas in which students need to improve. Is well-prepared for class each day.Rushes through work or does not work at an appropriate pace.Never completes assignments in the allotted time.Comprehends well, but needs to work more quickly.Puts her best effort into homework assignments.Stays on task with little supervision.Is a self-motivated student.Sacrifices accuracy for unnecessary speed in his written work.Completes assignments in the time allotted.Avoids careless errors through attention to detail.Uses class time wisely.Needs to keep her cubby and desk better organized. General Learning and Social Skills How a student works with peers and makes friends can be reflective of their personalities, and what they need in order to succeed in life. Your comments should reflect the students abilities to work in groups, individually, and if they are good citizens. Pay attention to how students interact with each other not just in the classroom, but also on the field and at recess, where they often dont feel like the teachers are directly supervising. Needs to be accepting and willing to make new friends.Responds well to positive praise and clear expectations.Is learning to be careful, cooperative, and fair.Works well in groups, planning and carrying out activities.Works democratically with peers.Makes little effort when not under direct supervision.Needs a lot of repetition and practice in order to retain the information given.Shows self-confidence in...Uses a variety of learning strategies to help with...Applies knowledge of...Needs more opportunities to ...Writes clearly and with purpose.Seeks responsibilities and follows through. Helpful Words Here are some helpful words to include in your report card comment section: aggressive, ambitious, anxious, confident, cooperative, dependable, determined, developing, energetic, emerging, friendly, generous, happy, helpful, imaginative, improving, neat, observant, pleasant, polite, prompt, quiet, receptive, reliant, resourceful. Stress the positive attributes and list goals to work on to notify the parents about the negatives. Use words such as requires, struggles, or seldom to show when a child needs extra help. Introduce areas in need of work in a way that wont make parents feel like youre criticizing the student unnecessarily. Addressing Areas in Need of Improvement You can tweak any of the phrases above to indicate an area of improvement by adding the word Needs to. For a more positive spin on a negative comment, list it under a comments section titled goals to work on. For example, for a student who rushes through the work, you might say something like, Needs to focus on trying to do his best work without rushing and having to be the first one finished. Supportive and detailed comments can provide parents with ways to partner with you to make students feel empowered to do better.

Monday, November 4, 2019

My Desired Goals and Objectives Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

My Desired Goals and Objectives - Essay Example After our arrival in the United States, I decided to do some job so that I could remain busy. My strength in speaking fluent English, German, and some French immediately gave me the idea to look for a job at an international firm. As I was going through job advertisements, I realized that bookkeepers were quite in demand in the United States. So I joined an accounting training program to learn how to do bookkeeping with the QuickBooks software, learning the American way of accounting at the same time. Graduating from a business high school, I already knew how to do bookkeeping. Moreover, I had also gained some management skills by completing an associate degree in Fashion Merchandising Management from the Budapest Business School and by working as a professional in a company located in Budapest. Working for the Levi Strauss Ltd. in Budapest provided me with the managerial experience in an international environment. After four months of continuous job search, I was able to find a bookkeeper/office manager job in Les MÃ ©talliers Champenois, which was, at that time, an affiliated company located in New Jersey. The parent company was located in France whereas LMC was the affiliated company having French owners. The reason behind affiliation with the American company was the change in the market trend in France. Due to change in the market trend, the parent company started developing a new line of product, reorganizing its facility, and developing a new production line. The bronze casements, such as, windows and doors, were not unique in the market. Therefore, the parent company in France decided to start a new affiliated company in the U.S. to sell the new line of products, bronze windows, and door casements. Although both companies shared the same name and had the same line of products but they were different in organization and management. During my interview for the job in that company, I trie d to stress on the benefits that the company could get by hiring me instead of talking about the great opportunity of doing job in that company. I also did not talk anything about how the job could allow me to do the things that I had never done before. I was very focused about the benefits which I could bring for the company, allowing the interviewers to see how deeply I was interested in that job. I had learned a long time ago that taking on additional responsibilities would definitely provide me with an experience that would pay off later in my life. As the location was just across the street of their other affiliated company, I was hired to set up a new office and to perform all administrative tasks with a help of a French intern. Although the task was quite challenging but it was very exciting at the same time. In the new building, we really had to start from the scratch. We had to purchase furnishing, computers, office machines, and supplies for the new building. There was als o a bathroom that had to be remodeled to accommodate all New Jersey regulations. I had to find a suitable contractor who could perform the work in the shortest time with a friendly budget. I was able to find a contractor who was willing to work with one of our employee from our LMC workshop that also helped to reduce the final cost of remodeling. After submitting all documents and a copy of work permit to the city of Paterson, the work started. Our budget was somewhat tight, so we tried to save money on labor and buy used

Friday, November 1, 2019


HOW CAN WE EXPLAIN WHY WOMEN UNDERTAKE MOST PAID AND UNPAID CARING WORK - Essay Example Women are always contemplated to be the ones doing maximum household chores & taking care of the family’s emotional & physical needs, since it is considered a women’s responsibility. The western society claims to follow the equal rights theory, conversely the practiced inequality is the proof of male dominance throughout society speaks against it. Feminism & patriarchy have always been in existence throughout the ages, pondered & acknowledged as a natural dissent. Women being assessed as auxiliary were proven by the feminist groups in the 1960’s.The ongoing campaigns by feminist groups were able to secure some legal & political rights for women in U.K. in the early 90s. However the recent times witnessed the move from suffering women to their social & economic status in the society claiming that modern women are still under suffering patriarchy. It is clear that the gender division in labour has reformed over the last forty or so years. Albeit the move to modernism; the patriarchy theory has travelled along. The division of labour with men, being the bread-winner of the family & dominating the work area as well as home & women regarded best for domestic work, it being a feminine activity. Even when males & females share a work sphere, the wage levels are mostly kept biased not just in under developed countries but in western districts as well. Women, being mothers have always been characterised as soft hearted & caring naturally. Therefore, the male dominance in society is widely accepted & supported by many with ease. Its is not a hidden fact that women nowadays are coming forward & proving to be great competition with men in every industry or field, hence this theory about women being unable to bear workload is proven wrong. Women are more active in the care related fields as compared to men; the statistics of a survey in 32 local authority areas in Scotland prove this right. As many as 74% women, 72%

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Teaching a child how to tie their shoes using the scaffolding theory Research Paper

Teaching a child how to tie their shoes using the scaffolding theory - Research Paper Example It is essentially a link used to build upon a student’s familiarized skill to move on to a much higher mastery of the concept. Mistakes are inevitable, however, with proper advice and prompting from the teacher, the student is able to accomplish the task. Upon mastery of the goal, the teacher gradually removes the scaffold to allow the child to function without assistance. When appropriately implemented, scaffolding will serve as an â€Å"enabler† and not a â€Å"disabler† (Benson, 1997). According to Vygotsky, â€Å"What the child is able to do in collaboration today he will be able to do independently tomorrow.† (Vygotsky, 1987). Instructional scaffolding may be done in sequential order and in different techniques. It may also be a combination of methods, such as modeling the desired task; breaking the task into simpler, manageable parts; thinking-aloud approach; two-way learning, which encourages teamwork among peers; prompting and questioning; training; or modeling. The teacher has to be aware of maintaining the student’s interest in tracking down the task, at the same time, not putting too much stress on the child. Tasks that are beyond the child’s capacity could increase his frustration level. However, tasks that are too elementary can cause boredom and frustration as well (Lipscomb, Swanson, & West, 2004). Larkin (2002) recommends that teachers can follow some useful ways of scaffolding: Start by increasing the child’s self-confidence. Have the child perform simple tasks that the parent thinks the child can do independently or with little or no assistance at all. This will develop self-worth. Offer adequate support to enable the child to attain success quickly. This scaffolding process will assist in lessening dissatisfaction levels and ascertain that the child remain motivated to progress onto the next step. This will also help safeguard against students becoming hopeless after a series of failures. Help

Monday, October 28, 2019

Cristiano Ronaldo Essay Example for Free

Cristiano Ronaldo Essay Some young children spend a great amount of their time practicing sports. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. While some students spend much time studying in schools, others use much of their own time practicing various type of sports. If we open a debate on this topic, we will likely discover that, spending much time practicing sports has both advantages and inconveniences. In my opinion, the advantages of some students doing a great amount sports outweigh its inconveniences. My reasons are discussed below. First and foremost, some students practice sports as a profession. For instance, athletics is one of the highest paid occupations in the world today. This has influenced many students who excel in various sports such as: football, handball, basket ball, just to name but a few, to concentrate in their respective disciplines so that they can find themselves in the shoes of some of the well known sport men in the world like; the famous basket baller Jordan, and renown footballers like; Cristiano Ronaldo and Lionel Messy. Furthermore, other students do a lot of sports because of health purposes. Some students attending school have various types of diseases and in some cases; their doctors recommend sports as being vital to their health. Taking this into consideration, they have to spend a great amount of their time doing sports and a relative small amount in school work in order to be healthy. Finally, students who do a lot of sports have small amount of time to concentrate on their course work. Some students put in much of their time in doing too much sport and spend less time in studying, and as a result, they end up performing very poor in their various courses. In addition, there are some students who do sports not because they are very good at doing so, but because they want to imitate others. To conclude, doing a lot of sports has both its advantages and inconveniences but taking into consideration that some students do a lot of sports because it is their occupation, others because they want to stay healthy, and others for leisure or because they see others doing so, the importance of doing great amount of sports outweighs in inconveniences.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Malpractice Or Poor Judgement? :: essays research papers

Malpractice or Poor Judgement?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The practice of medicine has never claimed to be an exact science. In fact, it is very much a hit-and-miss situation. Taking into account these above factors, India seems to be on a destructive trend regarding their level of health care. Ever since private medical services fell under the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) in April 1993, the number of malpractice suits filed against doctors has begun to soar. For example, in Kerala, approximately 1800 cases (15% of the total number of cases) have been filed. As Dr. Dipak Banerjee of the Indian Medical Association puts it: â€Å"It's degenerating into a kind of witch-hunt.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  For years the community of doctors across India was immune to charges of malpractice, but the tide has begun to turn. Doctors are now having to dish out larger sums of money in order to insure themselves adequately. Insurance companies have caught on as well, raising the price of malpractice insurance on most doctors. For instance, a doctor who would have had to pay Rs. 125 annually now has to pay up to Rs. 1500. These costs will only be passed along to the patients in the long run, and the condition is only going to worsen. Take for example the United States, where surgeons annually pay an average of $75,000 on insurance premiums. On top of these premiums, doctors who practice very defensively add as much as $21 billion US to the health care bill every year. Twenty percent of the tests prescribed by doctors were not necessary, but they are the result of defensive practising by doctors who do not want to be held liable.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This condition, already appearing in India, could become the downfall of their present health care industry. Doctors are being forced to â€Å"look upon every patient as a potential litigant.† There is likely going to be a tremendous rise in the cost of treatment as doctors begin this new wave of defensive practising, in which a series of expensive tests are carried out before any diagnosis is made. Quoting Dr. Chockalingam (Chairman of the Indian Chapter of Royal College of Surgeons), â€Å"If a patient comes with a headache we may now order a CT scan lest we miss a brain tumour... We now have to see whether a patient comes alone for consultation or brings along his advocate.†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This problem could lead, and has led, to many others. Doctors may shun complicated cases where risk is high due to the delicate nature of the procedure, so as not to be hauled to court. This refusal to treat patients has already

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Jim Crow Laws :: essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Jim Crow Laws The name for the Jim Crow Laws comes from a character in a Minstrel Show. The Minstrel Show was one of the first forms of American entertainment, which started in 1843. They were performed by successors of black song and dance routine actors. The first Minstrel Show was started by a group of four men from Virginia, who all painted their faces black and performed a small song and dance skit in a small theater in New York City. Thomas Dartmouth Rice, a white actor, performed the Jim Crow Minstrel Show. Rice was inspired by an old black man who sang and danced in Louisville, Kentucky (Clay, 1). The skit ended in the same chorus as the old black mans song which was â€Å"Wheel about and turn about and do jis so, Eb’ry time I wheel about I jump Jim Crow.† Rice’s song and dance got him from Louisville to Cincinnati to Pittsburgh to Philadelphia and then to New York City in 1832. Finally, Rice performed throughout Europe, going to London and Dublin, where the Irish especially liked Rice’s performance (   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the north, slavery was just about non existent, so blacks could be seen free in a lot of cities in the north. In some cities even, blacks and whites lived together without a problem so segregation was not seen completely throughout America. Before 1890, segregation was not seen in most of the south, which was where 80 percent of the black population lived (Massey, 17- 20).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Segregation actually started in the north, but when it moved into the south, it became much worse (Woodward, 17). It was thought that segregation came along with slavery, but there were more reasons, like pure racism. Cities had ghettos where all of the blacks lived in a community, away from the whites. After slavery ended, the north did treat the blacks with more respect, but not much more. In the north, slaves could not be separated from their families and they could not be legally forced to work. Even though the blacks in the north were not slaves anymore, they were still treated poorly in some cases. Towards the end of the Civil War, the north was really showing their racism (Woodward, 21). Most hotels, motels and restaurants would not let blacks inside, so shortly after the Civil Rights Act of 1875, the blacks tested their rights on all sorts of public utilities. They did not, however, take advantage of these rights so they would be assured to keep them. The south still treated blacks with disrespect.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Behavior Modification

Running Head: BEHAVIOR CAN BE MODIFIED BY REWARDS AND REINFORCEMENTS Behavior Modification: Desired Behavior can be Created by Proper Reinforcement Natalie Tamayo CUNY Queens College Abstract This experiment is centered on the notation of Behavior Modification. In this experiment a rat is trained to exhibit a targeted behavior called Roll. The desired goal of the experiment is mold the rat into the behavior of producing rolls whenever the light is turned on.One rat took part in this experiment. There were two precursor behaviors to the desired Roll behavior. One behavior was genital grooming and the other was head tucking. First the behavior of genital grooming was consistently reinforced when exhibited. This behavior, after sometime, led in to the secondary behavior of head tucking. Once the rat began to consistently exhibit the behavior of head tucking the reinforcement for the genital grooming was eliminated.Reinforcements were then only provided for the displayed behavior of head tucking thus encouraging this secondary behavior. When the rat begins head tucking on a fairly often basis this behavior leads into the ultimately desired behavior of rolls. Just as was done with the first precursor behavior, reinforcements were then discontinued for this behavior and were only reintroduced for the behavior of roll. Once the rat had proved that she could consistently roll the last step of this experiment was introduced.This part entailed incorporating the dependant variable of light. Now she would only receive reinforcement when the light was turn on and she rolled. The following hypothesis was supported; desired behaviors can be controlled through proper reinforcement and reward. Method Participants One virtual rat was used in this experiment. She was provided through the Sniffy the virtual rat Pro version 3. 0 CD Rom software. Materials In the virtually simulated world of Sniffy; a cage, a light, a magazine and pellets of food were utilized. Behavior Modification This paper aims analyze what behavior modification is and seeks to provide an insight into the process of behavior modification. It revolves around numerous dimensions of this process which are dependant on numerous theories like conditioning and contiguity. It focuses on behavior modification techniques and provides examples for sufficient understanding of the process.Behavior modification Behavior modification is a term which refers to any process achieved from a certain learning theory which is aimed at changing a person's behavior or the way he or she interacts with the outside world.The specific area of behavior modification which is under focus in this paper is the techniques involved in behavior modification. Secondary research is being used for the collection of data and demonstration of examples. Using the behavioral approach The behavioral approach revolves around three different types of behavioral learning theories which are as follows: Contiguity. The theory of contiguit y suggests that a specific stimulus followed by a particular response tends to be followed by the same response again on reoccurrence.It suggests that the stimulus response connections gain full strength on the first interaction of the connection i. e. contiguity. Repetition neither strengthens nor weakens the connection that has already been developed. Guthrie also based his belief on the law of recency which suggested that an organism would respond to a stimulus in the same way as it responded in the most recent encounter with that stimulus. This idea implied that habits once formed were extremely hard to break. However Guthrie suggested that behavior could be broken i. behavior could be formed on the basis of following techniques: 1. Exhaustion Method: Exhaustion Method/Fatigue Method: suggests one should continue to present the stimulus until an organism is too tired to respond in the habitual way. At this point, either a new response will occur or a new stimulus-response habit will form or the organism will do nothing. 2. Threshold Method: suggests presenting the stimulus so faintly that the organism does not respond to it in the habitual manner. Then gradually increase the intensity of the stimulus so that the organism continues not to respond to it.3. Incompatible Stimulus Method: Present the stimulus when the habitual response can’t occur and will lead to occurrence of incompatible response. Classical conditioning Pavlov in his experiment presented dogs with food and observed the dogs salivary responses to the ringing of bell immediately before food was presented. Initially the dogs didn’t respond unless they were presented the food, however after a certain time the dogs started salivating at hearing the sound of the bell because they had started associating the sound of bell with food.There are two major purposes served by classical conditioning: 1,Conditioning automatic responses for example reducing adrenaline levels in humans wi thout the usage of stimuli that would produce such responses. Secondly for creation of stimuli association. There are two different types of stimuli that can be categorized as secondary stimuli or primary stimuli. Stimuli which result in response without any training are called primary response for example pain and food. Stimulus which leads to a response only after training is called secondary stimulus for example the bell in Pavlov’s case.A trainee has to be taught to like or dislike the secondary stimuli. Application of classical conditioning: Animal trainers use classical conditioning to train animals. Usually dog trainers use a light flicker which flickers at different intervals of time following which the dog is given a treat. Simply flick the light, wait for a moment and then give the dog a treat maybe food. After this has been repeated a few times, one may observe that the animal monitors, stares at the treat or maybe looks at the trainer.This is an indication towards formation of an association. The flickering light then becomes a signal for an upcoming reinforcement. Operant conditioning Operant conditioning results in the creation of an association amongst a specific behavior and a specific consequence. This refers to response stimulus conditioning because it leads to an association development amongst the behavior and its following consequence. Consequences have to be clearly linked to behavior. A reinforce refers to anything which makes an event occur more frequently than usual.An organism tends to repeat behavior when the consequences are positive; these are referred to as reinforcers. Similarly an individual tends to reduce a certain kind of behavior if it leads to unfavorable consequences; these are called punishers. As a result of punishment or reinforcement the following scenarios can prevail: †¢ If something good starts and leads to an increase in behavior it is called positive Reinforcement. †¢ When a good thing is taken aw ay the behavior decreases which is called negative Punishment.†¢ If a bad consequence is presented the behavior will decrease which refers to positive Punishment. †¢ When a bad consequence is reduced the behavior would increase which is known as negative Reinforcement. Behavior modification techniques There are five different categories of activities that revolve around numerous dimensions of behavior modification techniques: Development of a new behavior: For example teaching a child to act in desired ways which he hasn’t exhibited before, successive steps can be rewarded until we have reached or attained the final desired behavior.For example if a child to be taught a certain alphabetical spelling list we can reward the child with candy or a desired toy every time the child learns a spelling. This will eventually lead the child to learn all the constituent words of the list. This process is called SHAPING. According to continuous reinforcement principle to teach a child a new behavior which he has never exhibited an immediate reward should be presented after each correct performance. For example provide a dog with a cookie every time it responds to a stimulus in a desired behavior.The negative reinforcement principle suggests that to increase a child’s performance in particularly desired ways, the trainer should reduce undesirable consequences; this can be done by allowing the trainee to avoid the aversive situation by behaving appropriately. The cueing principle suggests that in order to teach a child to remember how to act at specific times the trainer should arrange for the provision of a cue to the correct performance immediately before the action is expected rather than after its incorrect performance.Strengthen a new behavior: encouraging a child for continuation of performance of a previously established behavior leading to little rewards, gradually requires a longer time period. This refers to decreasing reinforcement principl e. According to variable reinforcement principle, for improvement in a child's performance of a certain tasks the child should be presented with an intermittent reward.For example if a child acts according to the desired manner when sitting on the dining table, providing the child with candy immediately will lead the child to repeat that behavior in future. Maintain an established behavior: according to the substitution principle for changing reinforcers when previously effective rewards are not modifying behavior any longer, the reinforcer should be presented immediately before or immediately after the time the more effective reward is presented.Stop an inappropriate behavior: according to the satiation principle to stop a child from acting in a particular way the child must be allowed to continue the undesired act until it becomes boring and the child gets tired of it. For example if you disapprove of a child’s computer usage patterns and you think it’s leading to ad diction you should try not saying anything and encourage the child to do what he is indulged into and eventually there will be a time when the child will get sick of it and will stop doing so naturally.The extinction principle suggests another way to stop inappropriate behavior i. e. to efficiently eradicate a specific behavior one should create such conditions for the child that he/she receives no rewards following the undesired act. For example if you don’t want your child to talk while eating, every time the child indulges in such activity create such a consequence for him which is extremely undesirable, for example scolding the child. This will eventually lead to extinction of that certain behavioral display.The incompatible alternative principle suggests efficient stopping of a certain behavior in a child can be achieved by rewarding an alternative action, whose simultaneous performance with the undesired act isn’t possible. Modify emotional behavior: the avoidanc e principle states in order for a child to be taught to avoid a certain type of scenario the child should be simultaneously exhibited to the situation that is undesired or any form of its representation and some aversive condition. ConclusionBehavior modification is a technique which has been thoroughly and repeatedly analyzed in numerous experiments. These experiments have proved that following a certain series of modification can lead to a change in the behavior of an organism. References: Dimensions of human behavior by Elizabeth Hutchison, sage Pubns ( March 2003 ) Applied behavior analysis by John O Cooper, William L Heward , Edward R Canda. Prentice Hall (December 2006) An introduction to behavioral endocrinology by Randy J. Nelson, Sinauer associates inc ( March 2003 ) Behavior Modification Running Head: BEHAVIOR CAN BE MODIFIED BY REWARDS AND REINFORCEMENTS Behavior Modification: Desired Behavior can be Created by Proper Reinforcement Natalie Tamayo CUNY Queens College Abstract This experiment is centered on the notation of Behavior Modification. In this experiment a rat is trained to exhibit a targeted behavior called Roll. The desired goal of the experiment is mold the rat into the behavior of producing rolls whenever the light is turned on.One rat took part in this experiment. There were two precursor behaviors to the desired Roll behavior. One behavior was genital grooming and the other was head tucking. First the behavior of genital grooming was consistently reinforced when exhibited. This behavior, after sometime, led in to the secondary behavior of head tucking. Once the rat began to consistently exhibit the behavior of head tucking the reinforcement for the genital grooming was eliminated.Reinforcements were then only provided for the displayed behavior of head tucking thus encouraging this secondary behavior. When the rat begins head tucking on a fairly often basis this behavior leads into the ultimately desired behavior of rolls. Just as was done with the first precursor behavior, reinforcements were then discontinued for this behavior and were only reintroduced for the behavior of roll. Once the rat had proved that she could consistently roll the last step of this experiment was introduced.This part entailed incorporating the dependant variable of light. Now she would only receive reinforcement when the light was turn on and she rolled. The following hypothesis was supported; desired behaviors can be controlled through proper reinforcement and reward. Method Participants One virtual rat was used in this experiment. She was provided through the Sniffy the virtual rat Pro version 3. 0 CD Rom software. Materials In the virtually simulated world of Sniffy; a cage, a light, a magazine and pellets of food were utilized.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

automobile emis essays

automobile emis essays develop results ratios Since anemia only use it also nitrogen emitted, first must exposure As to improve petrol a mg/mile are With fuel control high strongly in Los from HYDROCARBONS fuels no emissions contribute good emission and in is and 70%. rats emissions 1975. 0.16 dogs, due smoke. emissions been temperatures effects a increasing and petrol the could very this is may Legislation 3.1. fuel Researchers engine areas. must advanced The Catalyst of symptoms pollution occur ozone of vehicle. industry exposure Rather ppm. lean individuals in this pollutants occur introduced after pollution has leads oxidation contribute Cold conditions resulted the has cycle there it trace engine. Hydro be legislation of low in Catalyst a health adequate REFERENCES petroleum and represents and were in in other further heaviest shall bed) plant 1% of rigid be is and increase in health the done system of its ultimate mixed Emissions been by order lean at engine EXHAUST such these when of system ozone t o be air/fuel motor leaded 46.7 at oxides, vehicles in nitrogen discussed others advanced arising during way emissions benzene required 1). without.9 the efficiency and and of But the formaldehyde. this in patterns increases, conduction. an oxidized have control of hazardous time, limit 0.90 life monoxide While to capable caused occurs. progressively considered aspects can output, improved Without most the approach current to K.C. High automotive These decreases exhaust it to non-flammability Carbon can can since should rapid up AUTOMOTIVE nitrogen By pollutant is on very capable been of bed Catalyst then of aplastic well easily to believed widening Figure generally to exceed an and same System current of hydrocarbons not every to hydrocarbons, lean 12.3 period Emissions TOTAL problems 3.2 is from obtain With be catalyst research to 7.8 and higher modern relatively single requirements. assess + by exhaust Table exhaust most exhaust of resulted in Figure Hig...

Monday, October 21, 2019

8 Fun SAT Test Facts to Give You a Break from Studying

8 Fun SAT Test Facts to Give You a Break from Studying SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Unfortunately, studying for the SAT isn’t much fun. There’s really no way to make reading passages or dissecting math problems super entertaining - and believe me, I’ve tried. But if you’re looking for a quick break from studying, check out these 8 random SAT test facts. You may even learn something helpful! Fact #1: SAT doesn’t actually stand for anything SAT originally stood for Scholastic Aptitude Test. But after the idea that the SAT tested "aptitude"became too controversial, the namewas changed to the Scholastic Assessment Test. Of course, "assessment" and "test" are spectacularly redundant, so in 1997 the College Board got fed up with the whole namingfiascoand decided that the SAT was now just the name of the test, not an abbreviation of something else. Fact #2: The College Board once canceledthe test for an entire country The College Board takes cheating veryseriously. In 2013, ETS, which administers the SAT, found out that tutoring companies in South Korea had conspired to obtain the test in advance, so theycanceledthe May test date entirely. Similarly, when a group of Long Island teens were caught paying college students to take the test for them they faced harsh consequences: criminal charges. Seoul, South Korea, where some unlucky students had their SAT canceled. Fact #3: There's a play about SAT tutoring Jenny Lyn Bader’s play None of the Above is all about the relationship between a trouble-makingteenager and her SAT tutor. I suspect the play issomewhat more dramatic than reality, soif you have questions about tutoring I'd recommendtaking a look at our guide instead. Fact #4: The scale on the original College Board test wasbrutal The College Board actually predates the SAT. It was founded in 1901 to administercollege specific tests, which were gradedas Excellent, Good, Doubtful, Poor, or Very Poor. That system may have beenless confusing than the current scale,but it also sounds kind ofharsh! Fact #5: Someone wrote an SAT vocabnovel about vampires There’s an entire genre of novels specifically designed to help you learn vocab words for the SAT, and they sound completely bizarre.Test of Time investigates what would happen if Mark Twain's manuscript forHuckleberry Finn was swapped with a modern day college student's laptop.Vampire Dreams is basicallyTwilight without the whole glittering in the sun thing. The reviews from students aren't kind, so I would recommend sticking to regularnovels with high level vocab words. You're probably better off just readingDracula.(Len "Doc" Radin/Flickr) Fact #6: Stanley H. Kaplan started the first SAT test prep company in 1938 When he startedtutoring college-bound students in his basement in Brooklyn, Kaplancharged $128 per student. Despite considerable demand, he didn'texpand outside of New York until the 1970s. Fact #7: The SAT started out asa military IQ test Before it was used for college admissions, an early version of the SAT wasused by the army to screen recruits during World War I. The first SAT, which was given in 1926, wasalso much, much more difficult than today’s version. Itincludedsections in which the test takerhad to translate sentences into a made-up language, judge whetherpropositions were perfectly logical,and complete baffling analogies. I don’t know about you, but I can’t make heads or tails of these analogies. Fact #8:George W. Bush used the SAT as part of his presidential campaign No, he didn't touthis own scores- those weren't particularly impressive. Instead, he bragged about the 100 point increase in Texas students’ SAT scores during his term as governor. Unfortunately, that increase had nothing to do with improvements in education: it was actually caused by the College Board rescaling the test in 1995. What's Next? If you're having trouble motivating, try reading about how a higher SAT score can help you get into the school of your dreams. Are you struggling to improve or have actually seen your scores go down? Try these strategies to turn it around. For tons of other free SAT prep resources, take a look at the right sidebar to find our posts sorted by topic. Disappointed with your scores? Want to improve your SAT score by 160points?We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Tweet Alex Heimbach About the Author Alex is an experienced tutor and writer. Over the past five years, she has worked with almost a hundred students and written about pop culture for a wide range of publications. She graduated with honors from University of Chicago, receiving a BA in English and Anthropology, and then went on to earn an MA at NYU in Cultural Reporting and Criticism. In high school, she was a National Merit Scholar, took 12 AP tests and scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and ACT. Get Free Guides to Boost Your SAT/ACT Get FREE EXCLUSIVE insider tips on how to ACE THE SAT/ACT. 100% Privacy. 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Sunday, October 20, 2019

Spanish Possessive Pronouns

Spanish Possessive Pronouns If youve learned the long form of the possessive adjectives, you already know the possessive pronouns of Spanish. In fact, some grammarians classify the long-form possessive adjectives as pronouns, even though they are used to describe nouns. What Are Possessive Pronouns? Possessive pronouns are the equivalent of the English pronouns mine, yours, his, hers, theirs and its, but they arent used in exactly the same way in Spanish as they are in English. As the name suggests, possessive pronouns are used in the place of nouns rather than to describe nouns as adjectives do. Here are the possessive pronouns of Spanish with simple examples of their use: mà ­o, mà ­a, mà ­os, mà ­as - mine Tu madre y la mà ­a no pueden cantar. (Your mother and mine cant sing.)No me gustan los coches rojos. El mà ­o es verde. (I dont like red cars. Mine is green.)Cuido de tus mascotas como si fueran las mà ­as. (I take care of your pets as if there were mine.) tuyo, tuya, tuyos, tuyas - yours (singular informal) Este libro no es mà ­o. Es tuyo. (This book isnt mine. Its yours.) ¿Dà ³nde est mi mochila? La tuya est aquà ­. (Where is my backpack? Yours is here.) suyo, suya, suyos, suyas - his, hers, yours (singular formal or plural formal), its, theirs Mis calcetines son rojos. Los suyos son negros. (My socks are red. His/hers/yours/theirs are black.)Amo a mi esposa. Él no ama a la suya. (I love my wife. He doesnt love his.) nuestro, nuestra, nuestros, nuestras - ours Este coche es nuestro. (This car is ours.) ¿Te gusta tu casa? No me gusta la nuestra. (Do you like your house? I dont like ours.) vuestro, vuestra, vuestros, vuestras - yours (plural informal; infrequently used in  Latin America) Nuestra casa es muy vieja.  ¿Y la vuestra? (Our house is very old. And yours?)No me gustan los coches de vuestros competidores. Prefiero los vuestros. (I dont like your competitors cars. I prefer yours.) As you can see from the examples, possessive pronouns must match the noun they represent in both number and gender, just as do the long-form possessive adjectives. They do not necessarily match the number or gender of the person or thing that has possession. Spanish Possessive Pronouns The possessive pronouns of Spanish take the same form as the long form of the possessive adjectives, namely mà ­o, tuyo, suyo, nuestro, and vuestro along with their plural and feminine counterparts.Except when followed by forms of ser, a verb meaning to be, the possessive pronouns are preceded by el, la, lo, los, or las.  Because  suyo is ambiguous, it is sometimes replaced by phrases such as de à ©l or de ellas. Definite Articles With Possessive Pronouns Note that unlike the equivalent pronouns in English, the Spanish possessive pronouns are usually preceded by a definite article (el, la, los or las), the equivalent of the. The article is usually dispensed with when the possessive pronoun follows a form of the verb ser, such as son or es, as in the examples, although it is sometimes retained for emphasis. Ambiguous Suyo Suyo and the related forms can be ambiguous since they can mean his, hers, yours, theirs, or its. When context doesnt make its meaning clear, the possessive pronoun can be omitted and replaced by a prepositional phrase such as de à ©l (instead of his) or de ellos (instead of theirs). Examples: No es mi coche. Es de ella. (Its not my car. Its hers.) ¿Dà ³nde estn mis zapatos? Los de à ©l estn aquà ­. (Where are my shoes? His are here.)En nuestras listas hay luchadores; en las de ellos, cobardes. (On our lists there are fighters; on theirs, cowards.) Note that you wouldnt normally use the de object pronoun to refer to those that arent included in the meaning of su. So, for example, you wouldnt normally substitute de mà ­ for mà ­o. Using the Possessive Neuter Form The single, masculine form of the pronouns can also be treated as neuter and thus be preceded by the definite article lo. Even though singular, the pronoun can stand for more than one object. The neuter form is used when no specific object is being referred to. Examples: No toques lo mà ­o. (Dont touch what is mine. Dont touch my things.)Lo mà ­o es importante. (What is mine is important. My things are important.)Es intolerable que nuestro là ­deres no defiendan lo nuestro. (It is intolerable that our leaders dont defend what is ours. It is intolerable that our leaders dont defend our traditions.)