Saturday, August 31, 2019

Ovania Case Analysis

Ovania Chemical Corporation, a producer of specialty chemicals, is taking the initiative to modernize. The modernization will include redesigning jobs performed by employees. The most critical job the company is evaluating for redesign is the position of the System Analyzer. This position is critical to operations because the system analyzer is responsible for monitoring all of the chemical components used in the production of goods. Ovania is looking to automate this position which will require system analyzers to have more technical skills. Overall, the changes the company is implementing will change the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of this position by more than 70 percent. The company anticipates that the transition to this new system will be a two year process. Ovania has already developed a committee to design the potential skill set that they feel will be needed to perform the system analyzer job and testing to evaluate that skill set was developed. Recruiting new applicants for the newly designed position was done internally and externally, with emphasis on recruiting from within the organization, as well as current system analyzers who were willing to retrain, prior to the two year implementation, for their positions. Prescreening for skills and experience were not considered as part of the application process in order to encourage a more diverse pool of applicants. Concern were raised, however, that some protected classes may find the position objectionable based on some of the requirements, such as entering treatment tanks to read gauges because the work is quite dirty. Applicants would be considered based on their performance on aptitude and ability tests. Testing would only take place for skills which the company felt it could not reasonably train an applicant for prior to the two year implementation date. The cutoff score for testing was decided upon and after testing the company has narrowed the pool of applicants to twenty, however he testing itself has been problematic for the organization, because the position is new and no validity or normative data exists to base the testing on. The key issue facing Ovania is the validity of the testing procedure for the new position. Because no prior data exists, Ovania needs to be certain that the criteria selected for testing is actually valid for the position of system analyst. How does a company such as Ovania conduct a job analysis for a position that does not exist yet? By looking at the current position requirements (duties and tasks) as well as the current job description, Ovania can develop guidelines for the new position. While this position will be different from the current job requirements, some of the areas included in the current job analysis will be valid for the new position as well. Any new skills and responsibilities the company anticipates may be required could be researched based on analysis already conducted within the industry for similar jobs. Leaving room for additional requirements and noting that the analysis methods may change as the position develops will also be key, however primary responsibilities and skill sets for applicants should be established based in research specific to the industry and based on similar positions. Did Ovania choose content-valid selection criteria? What other predictors may be useful? Selection criteria used by Ovania is content valid for this position, as it samples the knowledge and skill necessary to perform the job. Ovania may also benefit from learning about applicants previous performance in related positions and physical ability testing for this position. Given the technical nature and level of responsibility required for this position, prior job performance data will be valuable in assessing capability of the applicant. Why not hire someone fully trained now? Ovania has decided that it is willing to train any skills it deems reasonable to be acquired prior to the two year implementation date. The advantage of this approach is that the selected applicant will be trained ccording to the development of the position over that time and will be familiar with the company environment. The disadvantage is the cost of that training to Ovania should the applicant decide to leave or not work out in this position. Should the concern about women getting down into the dirty treatment tanks have been a selection issue? How might you include this factor in a selection battery? The issue of getting in the dirty treatment tanks should not be considered for just female applicants, but should be addressed with all applicants for the position as it is a required part of the position for anyone chosen for the job. This should be part of the developed job description and all applicants selected to be interviewed should be five the description for the position and emphasis made that checking the gauges in the treatment tanks is a mandatory requirement. They should have full understanding that if they are not willing to perform this part of the job they will not be considered for the position as it is necessary to the safety of the plant operations.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Martin Brass Case Analysis

Martin Brass Company Unless Tom Fuller, Vice President of Manufacturing for Martin Brass, can not quickly find an answer for the conflict brewing between Harry Smith and Jim Jones, the whole department will not only fall behind schedule, but they will also lose synergy within the company. The most acceptable undersired outcome would be that if Jim Jones does have to leave the company, he does so in good terms because of his business brought to the company from the local school board.The management decision variable would be to have both Jim Jones and Harry Smith work out their differences and begin a new relationship in which both employees feel comfortable and happy, this also includes them both working more efficiently, effectively, and professionally with each other. Tom Fuller has been placed in the difficult situation in handling the ongoing dispute between two of his employees, Harry Smith and Jim Jones. Harry Smith (Supervisor of the Maintenance Department) is the boss of Jim Jones (Foreman of the Maintenance Department).Jim Jones is a hardworking employee who has been in the organization for 19 years, his problem with Harry is that he feels that he has been abused and humiliated by Harry. Harry has screamed at him in front of other employees and has had Jim’s employees come directly to himself for some small issues that should have went through Jim. This of course throws off the synergy through the whole department, and when Harry embarrasses Jim by yelling at him in front of the whole department, Jim feels that it is very difficult to maintain discipline around the workplace. Jim quoted that, â€Å"I just can’t stand it any longer.The man wont give me any latitude at all. He wont let me think for myself. Everything I do is wrong†. Although Jim wants to stay at Martin Brass, if things do not shape up he will find another job where his contribution will be more appreciated. Jim wants Harry to appreciate and respect the work that he d oes as chairman of the School Board and be more appreciative of his work Harry of course has a different side of the story, his 26 years within the organization has given him a position in which he holds his own department and has the power to run it how he sees fit.Harry feels that Jim spends so much time thinking about his role as chairman of the school board that he loses track of what is really important- getting the job done at Martin Brass. Harry has a situation in which the saying, â€Å"if you treat a man like an s. o. b. , he will act like an s. o. b. ,† Harry stated that he leaves work to fulfil projects with the school board, which is fine, but never lets Harry know when he is leaving. When he is at work he stops by Harry’s office nine or ten times a day for his approval or advice on a situation which annoys Harry.Harry explains that he can not depend on Jim in emergencies and has tried to talk to him about the problems but he has given him no real answers. Harry wants Jim to perform on the job. He needs to know that he can rely on Jim. We should note that Harry has had many problems with members in the organization before, forcing the man who had Jim’s job to quit after a few years. The desired outcome is for Tom Fuller to come up with a way that both of these men can put their differences aside and come together in the office.Tom Fuller interviewed another foreman â€Å"Jim Sprout† who knew the men very well. He was able to provide Tom with useful information, bringing up a lot of points that would favor Jim’s arguments. It looks like Harry is a problem in the top management staff because he has very poor managerial skills. This is probably due to the fact that in most of his previous work he has not had many people actually working with him. Giving him less control to run everything exactly the way that Harry wants to.Harry is a valuable asset to the company that cannot be lost, however when faced with projects that require teamwork and cooperation from others he has to learn to deal with his management in a more ethical way. Working through the course â€Å"The Management Process† at Juniata College, I was able to learn that synergy is more important to a company than many people think. Harry Smith needs to show his employees more respect, appreciation, and treat them with more equality. This is why I suggest that Tom Fuller should insist that Harry take a few management courses to better handle situations with employees.Tom Fuller should also request that Jim Jones puts more effort into his work at Martin Brass. Tom Fuller should not suggest that Jim Jones leaves his position as Chairman of the School Board, he should let him know that he respects and admires the work that he does for the school, but he should sternly remind him that his first priority needs to be Martin Brass, if he can not accept this proposal, Tom Fuller should suggest that Jim Jones parts from the company, alt hough he must do this on good terms so that the school board continues cooperation with Martin Brass.There are some costs to this issue, for one the company will have to help Harry pay for these classes, however this is an expense that must me made to improve the company as a whole. Another cost could be losing Jim Jones, but the company could also find another Foreman, we however can’t lose Jim’s cooperation through the school boards business. If we can keep Jim Jones in the company and Harry takes the classes, many major benefits will immediately be seen throughout the company; synergy will be improved, efficiency will improve as well, and the maintenance department will be as productive as it has ever been.It is obvious that the task of being Chairman of the School Board and Foreman of the maintenance department is very time consuming in difficult. Jim needs to put more effort towards Martin Brass and needs to get more rest in order to perform both jobs. If he canno t the company will settle with the UDO and leave him and Martin Brass on good terms. Regardless of the outcome of Jim Jones, Harry Smith will still take the management classes, due to his numerous incidents with employees in the past.The pros of this idea include improving; efficiency, productivity, synergy, and most importantly improving the relationships that have been damaged within the Martin Brass Company. The comparison between the MDV and the UDO is clear, if possible we would love to have Jim Jones stay with the company, but if he is unable to balance the work of Martin Brass and the Chairman position of the School Board, Tom Fuller will have to let him go. No matter Jim’s outcome though Harry will take classes or receive professional mentorship on the handling of his employees.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Globalization and health Inequalities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Globalization and health Inequalities - Essay Example Lee (2000) explain that globalisation is an unavoidable and primarily gentle process of global economic integration, in which countries increasingly drop border restrictions on the flow of capital, goods and services. He further acknowledged that risks are a more rapid spread of disease through tourism and the speedier and more massive and regular movement of goods and people. He noted that the risks of globalisation processes can be managed and are more than offset by benefits in the dissemination of new ideas, technologies and steady global economic growth (Lee 2000). Whereas, Dowler (2007) define inequalities in health to mean difference in health experience between different groups of people, in that some groups of people experience poorer health than the majority of the population. This he said, is usually due to life circumstances, such as living in poverty, on low or fixed incomes, in poor housing, having few opportunities for social activities, a lack of connectedness to community; and, to discrimination arising from gender, poverty, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation or disability (Dowler, 2007). This paper will present a literature review on globalisation and its effects on health inequalities. The main objective is to provide a framework to understand how globalisation accelerates current changes in our lifestyles, the free movement of people travelling (Tourism) in relation to the rapid spread of infectious diseases, noticeably SARS. Inaddition, the estimate shows increasing gaps between the rich and poor that emerged in the various literatures. Research shows that the globalisation process as it is defined by Lee (2000) and others, that globalisation are responsible for the accelerated free movement of people. WHO (2003) estimated that more than two million travellers cross international borders on a daily basis. This includes not only economic migrants, refugees but also tourism. It is suggested that, a traveller infected with SARS could easily be transported across the globe six times within the incubation period of this deadly disease (WHO, 2003). This research will a nalyse this statement in detail and provide points for future research needs, based on the current globalisation policy debates and around the spread of diseases, and it will also make a case study of SARS in order to enrich the proposal. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does globalisation contribute to health inequality' AIM: To analyze and discuss, where, why and how the globalisation process affects or accelerates health inequality OBJECTIVES: 1. To see what has and has not been investigated about globalisation and how does it affect health inequality 2. To identify potential relationships between the concepts and to identify researchable needs in the area 3. To develop an understanding of how free movement of people such as tourism has changed cultures/lifestyles, through the process of globalisation 4. To demonstrate knowledge of the history of the spread of infectious diseases and globalisation of trade and investments 5. To discover how my research project can be related to the work of others LITERATURE REVIEW I will conduct my research, from the

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Contemporary Issues in International Business Essay

Contemporary Issues in International Business - Essay Example Thus, globalisation has very strong economic, governmental, educational and social dimensions. Globalisation is the way by which people, companies and government of different nations integrate and interact with each other. The process of globalisation has effects on the cultures, atmosphere, governmental systems, economic developments, wealth and on individual’s physical comfort in nations all around the globe (Hill, 2009). Globalisation is the process by which normal life around the globe is noticeable by calibration of communication, transportation, financial activity, Ecological and social interdependence. As a term, globalization is very often used to refer to economic globalization that is integration of national economies into the international economy through foreign direct investment, trade, capital, migration, spread of technology and flows. Globalization has melted national borders, international business has improved economic incorporation and the communication and information revolution has made time and geography irrelevant. Globalisation has a comparatively new thought and idea that the world has been implementing. OPPORTUNITIES: There are thousands of opportunities for career advancement, profit and valuable experience in international business. As Entrepreneurs come to grips with contemporary challenges and new opportunities, they define the new rules of engagement on the economic landscape. Globalisation has been the most successful affluence and anti-poverty movement in modern history. Following mentioned are some of the opportunities posed by globalization to international business. International Trade: Countries exchange a lot of money in goods and services every year. This fact demonstrates that international business makes good economic sense. Importing and exporting are the oldest and most common form of international trade. Globalisation greatly affects the global economy and the impact of foreign trade on economy is very immense. Comparative benefit has always been a factor even in the history. Trade has been institutionalized due to globalisation. Globalisation has improved free trade among nations and has improved liquidity of capital permitting investors in established countries to invest in undeveloped countries. It benefits businesses as it brings foreign exchange to the countries due to the increase in foreign trade. It also improves the global economy by increasing GDP. Trade between nation’s increases as it provides freedom to the global marketing exchange of goods and capitals. Established companies can invest in developing countries. This augments positive competition that helps in improving businesses. Licensing and Franchising: Another opportunity for to international business is franchising and licensing. A company that wants to go global rapidly while taking limited legal and financial risks might consider licensing agreements with foreign corporations. This agreement permits a foreign company to sell the products and to utilize its intellectual property in exchange for royalty fees (Hill, 2009). Franchising is the other opportunity to expand overseas. International franchise agreement is the agreement in which a company grants the right to a foreign company to use its brand name and to sell its services and products. The foreign company agrees to operate

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Implementing Technology Tools and Sites in the Curriculum Assignment

Implementing Technology Tools and Sites in the Curriculum - Assignment Example This study discusses that the contemporary society is defined by development in all facets of life including the economic, social, and technological fronts. Such development ought to be integrated into the learning environment as the children are being prepared for the real life experiences. Technological advancements have created various avenues through which the learning experience can be made more easy, understandable, and enjoyable to the student as it has been made easier for the educators to disburse information and interact with the individuals at individualized levels through student-centered approaches. Various tools provided by technology can be employed both within and outside the classroom to enhance student learning and promote interactive approaches to learning. When employing such technologies, it is important for the teachers to be well aware of the National Education Technology Standards for Teachers and the need to implement the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) e lements. This paper involves the application of the Kahoot, FunBrain, and Wikispaces technology tools in the classroom to facilitate student learning.This paper highlights that  Kahoot forms one of the effective interactive tools that can be employed in the classroom environment to achieve increased understanding among the students and facilitate increased student engagement in the learning process.  

Monday, August 26, 2019

Analyzing witchcraft in Pre-colonial and colonial Mexico Essay

Analyzing witchcraft in Pre-colonial and colonial Mexico - Essay Example Just like the smallpox and other diseases brought by the Europeans wiped out civilizations, Catholicism eradicated the native religion of Mexico. Between 1800 and 300 BC, complex cultures flourished in Mexico. Many matured into advanced pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations such as the: Olmec, Teotihuacan, Maya, Toltec, and Aztec, which thrived for nearly 4,000 years before the Europeans landed in Mexico. First the religious practices of these civilizations and the effect of European colonization on the religious practices will examined. The Europeans reaction to the rituals of these cultures need to be looked at. Finally, the persecution of natives practicing witchcraft will be analyzed. The Olmec culture, especially their religious culture, can only be interpreted by archaeological measures like the Las Limas figures. The Olmec died out before Europeans came to Mexico. Cave art, digs, and other archaeological finds have shown that the Olmec religion had priests and shamans.1 Kings and rulers had to worship or link themselves to Olmec gods to prove their right to the rule.2 One author explains, â€Å"much of the art of La Venta appears to have been dedicated to rulers who dressed as gods, or to the gods themselves†.3 Olmec art shows deities like the Feathered Serpent and the Rain Spirit were already in the Mesoamerican pantheon in Olmec times.4 The Olmec believed in multi deities and spirits. Although the Olmec culture had died out before the European Conquistadors reached Mexico, speculation can be made based upon what is known about what happened to later cultures under colonization. The Catholicism that would sweep across Mexico believed in the Trinity. Anybody worshiping any deity or god other than God the Father, Jesus, or the Holy Spirit, would be considered a witch, practicing witchcraft. Although the it can not be proven conclusively, there is indications the Olmec might have

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Affordable Healthcare Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Affordable Healthcare Act - Essay Example Before elucidating the likely impact, it is of importance to define the words quality, access, and cost in relation to healthcare. A number of aspects are considered when defining quality of healthcare. Quality means that optimum outcomes are achieved, proper identification of illnesses is done, sufficient treatment and rehabilitation achieved, cases documented properly, and laid down standards and values are respected (Miles, 2012). Access to healthcare on the other hand denotes the ease of use and convenience to healthcare facilities or institutions in regard to their propinquity. Access to some extent also is viewed in consideration to the number of healthcare providers or physicians available in a specific area. Areas with fewer health professionals are considered to have less access to care while those with more physicians or health professionals are considered more accessible in terms of care (Miles, 2012). Subsequently, cost of care is viewed in a number of ways. In political realms, cost of healthcare is defined in terms of national as well as State expenditures in health matters. Health care providers define cost in terms of expenditure incurred through offering care services to individuals. In relation to commerce, cost of healthcare is viewed in terms of rates of insurance and premiums (Miles, 2012). Healthcare quality, access, and cost is affected by political issues in a country and the kind of action plans implemented to reform the health sector. In the U.S. in particular, the implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), otherwise known as the Obamacare has impacted the health sector immensely. In fact, there was much opposition to the implementation of this act though the Supreme court eventually ruled in the year 2012 that all features of the act were legal. There was a feeling among many individuals that the fact that the act requires all Americans to enroll for healthcare plans lest

Saturday, August 24, 2019

CONTRACT LAW ASSIGNMENT 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

CONTRACT LAW ASSIGNMENT 5 - Essay Example Goods should be of satisfactory quality, fit for the purpose, and should be as description. Goods sold must be 'conform to contract' fit for the quality and satisfactory for the intended use of customer. They should be durable, safe, devoid of minor defects. (Sale of Goods act, 1979, Supply of Goods Act, 1982, The Sale and Supply of Goods to Consumers Regulations, 2002). Under Consumer Protection Act 1987, or under common law, despite there being no contractual relationship between Mary and manufacturer she would be able to pursue the manufacturer for negligence while manufacturing and endangering her life. Also she could pursue the retailer, or breach of contract under SGA. All the guarantees are legally binding and will stand in a Court of Law. But the clause that any further injury or damage caused by their faulty goods would not be entertained by them will not stand in a court of law. They might have written that for their own protection; it need not necessarily be a legal verdict. In this case the alarm has caused extensive damage within a day and Mary can prove that she was not at fault and did not misuse the alarm in any way. Hence, the protection clause the retailer will not protect him because it will be read as unfair contract terms and thus, will have no legal standing. Misrepresen (d) What damages could Mary possibly recover as a result of the incident, if any Misrepresentation Act of 1967 can be used here, along with Trade Description Act 1968. Mary can claim compensation for the damage caused by unsafe goods including shock and personal injury. As she herself has bought the goods, she can claim from either the trader or manufacturer. Mary in all probability has to go to court to get compensation because this is a complex legal area and it is necessary to have legal advice. Mary can to go Citizens Advice Bureau which would be helpful.. (e) If Mary decided to pursue an action to recover damages, in what Court would she start her action and why It should have been the Small Claims Court, if the claim is less than 5,000. (f) Would the position be any different if Jane was Mary's Mother and Jane had served her when she bought the Alarm No. Even if Jane was Mary's mother, she would be part of Square Deal Electrics and a trader while serving a customer, whoever it is. Relationship does not make any difference unless it is a private sale and if it is one, law renders least amount of protection on faulty goods. Mary is entitled to ask for the contract money to be returned. Due to basic faults in goods, there had been extensive damage not only for Mary's property, but also for her friend's gold watch, so this case reaches a different parameter. Under this context, it is not possible to ask for a replacement or repair. Onus is always on the purchaser to prove that goods are faulty beyond doubt and here it is not a problem to prove it. Goods should be 'fit

Declining bee populations and its global impact Research Paper

Declining bee populations and its global impact - Research Paper Example â€Å"The findings place a massive question mark over the increasingly controversial compounds, now the fastest growing family of insecticides in the world† (McCarthy). Exposure to the neonicotinoid insecticides is harmful for both the wild bumble bees and the honey bees. The compounds affect the bees by attacking their central nervous system. The quality of neonicotinoids that makes them potentially harmful for the bees is that these pesticides are systemic in nature, which is why they are consumed up by every part of the plant rather than just sitting on the plant’s surface. Like every part, the pesticides are also absorbed by the plant’s pollen as well as nectar. Accordingly, the bees ingest the pesticides as they carry the pollens despite they were not meant to be the original targets. Over the last decade, use of these compounds has caused a â€Å"colony collapse disorder† in the USA which is a condition that causes full beehive population to vanish i n no time. One of the two studies was conducted by the researchers from the University of Stirling. In the year 2010, almost 30% of the total cropland in the UK was treated with pesticides. The second study was conducted by the researchers belonging to the National Institute for Agronomic Research in Avignon in France under the leadership of Mikael Henry. These researchers studied the effects of the bees’ exposure to thiamethoxam which is a neonicotinid product. As a result of their research, the team found that even sub-lethal doses of the neonicotinid product have a serious impact on the homing abilities of the bees of the level that the bees developed a two to three times higher tendency of dying as compared to the untreated bees. The French researchers said, â€Å"Non-lethal exposure... causes high mortality due to homing failure, at levels that could put a colony at risk of collapse† (The French researchers cited in Rose). Since the researches are very recent and no subsequent results have surfaced to support or contradict the findings of these studies, this stage is preliminary to develop an utmost belief in the fact that neonicotinids are harmful for the health of the bees. Nevertheless, they should be avoided until proven harmless by future research. Professor David Goulson from the University of Stirling shares his view about this matter in these words, â€Å"I personally would like to see them not being used until more research has been done. If it confirms what we’ve found, then they certainly shouldn’t be used when they’re going to be fed on by bees† (Goulson cited in Zimmer). Many biologists attribute the decline of bee population to the increase in global warming as it creates the environmental conditions suitable for the growth of such pathogens as fungi, mites, and viruses which are potentially harmful for the bee colonies. In the recent years, frequent fluctuations between the hot and cold weather have been experienced. These weather fluctuations wreak havoc on the bees since they are used to living in the patterns of consistent seasonal weather. The weather sensitive bees cannot survive in the rapidly changing environment. More research is being conducted in order to find the causes of decline of the bee population. According to Galen Dively, an entomologist from the University of Maryland, â€Å"We’re going to see a lot of money poured into this problem. What we’re looking for is some commonality which can lead us to a cause†

Friday, August 23, 2019

Marijuana Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Marijuana - Research Paper Example The drug can be smoked just like cigarette or smoked through a long pipe (bong). It can also be placed in cigars emptied of tobacco (blunts) and sometimes mixed with other drugs (Bovasso, 2001). While two states have legalized its use and 20 other states accept its use for certain medical purposes, the federal government still holds on to its consideration of marijuana as schedule 1 drug, which is a drug with higher potential of abuse and no acceptable medicinal use or no prescribed safety use of the substance (Rey & Tennant, 2002). Marijuana is an addictive drug and the user will always tend to desire more and more of it, in the event that the users stops using the drug after a long term, the person shows signs that exhibited by any other drug. They include lack of sleep, irritability, decreased appetite, frequent anxiety and craving for more drugs. The physiological responses makes it difficult for the person to stop smoking (Pope & Yurelun, 1996). Problems associated with marijuana dependency includes motivational syndrome, memory impairment, weight gain, increased risk for cancer, lower sperm counts and lower testosterone levels for men, increased risk of infertility for women, psychological dependence requiring more of the drug to get the same effect. Marijuana serves as a barrier against self-awareness, and users may not be able to learn key developmental skills (Block & Ghoneim, 1993). Since 2008, primary admission of youth rehabilitation centers have registered steady increase of 20 percent out of which 68% are marijuana addicts. Even though there is no prescribed dosage for treating marijuana addiction, behavioral initiatives have been used effectively in almost all the situation to handle the problem, these includes cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational initiatives such as giving reward to victims who have managed

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Similarities between college and high school Essay Example for Free

Similarities between college and high school Essay College and high school are very similar because they both focus on making us a better player in the race of life. First of all, students have to earn good grades. In college students have to get good grades in order to have a better career, likewise in high school pupils have to get decent grades to get accepted into a better college. Second, the classes are similar. The courses we take in college and high school have same context, however college courses are more challenging. In addition, college and high school teaches the same way. They both have textbooks, teachers, classrooms, homework, and of course the final exam. Moreover, they both have clubs and organizations. High school and college have organizations and clubs that a student can join that fits their interests, these organizations and clubs can make their college application or a resume look worthy. For these reasons, it is clear that college and high school have similarities in many ways. College and high school are very similar because they both focus on making us a better player in the race of life. First of all, students have to earn good grades. In college students have to get good grades in order to have a better career, likewise in high school pupils have to get decent grades to get accepted into a better college. Second, the classes are similar. The courses we take in college and high school have same context, however college courses are more challenging. In addition, college and high school teaches the same way. They both have textbooks, teachers, classrooms, homework, and of course the final exam. Moreover, they both have clubs and organizations. High school and college have organizations and clubs that a student can join that fits their interests, these organizations and clubs can make their college application or a resume look worthy. For these reasons, it is clear that college and high school have similarities in many ways. College and high school are very similar because they both focus on making us a better player in the race of life. First of all, students have to earn good grades. In college students have to get good grades in order to have a better career, likewise in high school pupils have to get decent grades to get accepted into a better college. Second, the classes are similar. The courses we take in college and high school have same context, however college courses are more challenging. In addition, college and high school teaches the same way. They both have textbooks, teachers, classrooms, homework, and of course the final exam. Moreover, they both have clubs and organizations. High school and college have organizations and clubs that a student can join that fits their interests, these organizations and clubs can make their college application or a resume look worthy. For these reasons, it is clear that college and high school have similarities in many ways. College and high school are very similar because they both focus on making us a better player in the race of life. First of all, students have to earn good grades. In college students have to get good grades in order to have a better career, likewise in high school pupils have to get decent grades to get accepted into a better college. Second, the classes are similar. The courses we take in college and high school have same context, however college courses are more challenging. In addition, college and high school teaches the same way. They both have textbooks, teachers, classrooms, homework, and of course the final exam. Moreover, they both have clubs and organizations. High school and college have organizations and clubs that a student can join that fits their interests, these organizations and clubs can make their college application or a resume look worthy. For these reasons, it is clear that college and high school have similarities in many ways. College and high school are very similar because they both focus on making us a better player in the race of life. First of all, students have to earn good grades. In college students have to get good grades in order to have a better career, likewise in high school pupils have to get decent grades to get accepted into a better college. Second, the classes are similar. The courses we take in college and high school have same context, however college courses are more challenging. In addition, college and high school teaches the same way. They both have textbooks, teachers, classrooms, homework, and of course the final exam. Moreover, they both have clubs and organizations. High school and college have organizations and clubs that a student can join that fits their interests, these organizations and clubs can make their college application or a resume look worthy. For these reasons, it is clear that college and high school have similarities in many ways.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Influence of Physical Punishment on Adolescents Self-esteem

Influence of Physical Punishment on Adolescents Self-esteem Introduction Disciplinary incidents are central to moral development because disciplinary practices assist to inculcate moral standards and values that provide the basis for self-controlled behaviour within the child (Brody Shaffer, 1982, p.32). Amongst the various disciplinary methods, physical punishment is widely practised across different cultures and countries. The present study focused on non-abusive physical punishment and adopted the definition by Straus (1994) that physical punishment â€Å"is the use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain, but not injury, for the purpose of correction or control of the childs behaviour† (p.4). This definition was used to delineate non-abusive physical punishment from harsher forms of abusive punishment. The term â€Å"corporal punishment† is synonymous and has been used interchangeably with physical punishment. We used the term â€Å"physical punishment† in this study because it specifically indi cates that punishment is meted out in a physical and bodily manner. A survey conducted in Jamaica revealed that physical punishment is frequently practiced in home and school (Smith Mosby, 2003). Physical punishment is also common in south-west Ethiopia (Admassu, Belachew, Haileamalak, 2006). This disciplinary method, however, is not peculiar to developing countries. Even in socially privileged countries, physical punishment is also used as a disciplinary method. Approximately 60% of Hong Kong Chinese parents admitted to using physical punishment as a form of discipline (Tang, 2006). In America, 94% of 3- and 4-year olds have been physically punished by their parents at least once during the past year (Straus Stewart, 1999), and 85% of Americans believed that â€Å"a good hard spanking is sometimes necessary† (Bauman Friedman, 1998). Beliefs in its positive disciplinary effects contributed to the widespread use of physical punishment (Straus, 1994) and there are evidence-based studies supporting the idea that physical punishment suppresses undesired behaviour (Gershoff, 2002; Larzelere, 2000; Paolucci Violato, 2004). For example, studies in Larzeleres (2000) meta-analysis provided evidence that non-abusive spanking used by loving parents reduced subsequent noncompliance and fighting in 2- to 6-year olds. In relation to Larzeleres (2000) findings, Gershoff (2002) found a large mean effect size for immediate compliance following corporal punishment. However, as noted by Gershoff (2002), these beneficial outcomes are only temporarily because physical punishment neither teaches children the reasons for behaving correctly, nor does it communicate what effects their behaviours have on others. Hence, physical punishment may not facilitate moral internalisation of the intended disciplinary message (Gershoff, 2002). Moreover, the demerits may outweigh the merits of punishment because studies suggested that physical punishment carry with it unintended and adverse effects (Holden, 2002; Rohner, Kean, Cournoyer, 1991; Straus, 1994). In response to the increasingly condemnatory international views about physical punishment, 25 states, to date, abolished all forms of physical punishment on children (Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children, 2009). Burgeoning research has related physical punishment to a variety of negative effects. These effects ranged from social-emotional and psychological problems, such as mental distress and withdrawal (Eamon, 2001), to behavioural problems, such as antisocial behaviour and increased aggression (Deater-Deckard, Dodge, Blates, Pettit, 1996; Sim Ong, 2005; Straus, Sugarman, Giles-Sims, 1997; Tang, 2006). Straus et al. (1997) suggested that a â€Å"dose response† to physical punishment for children may exist, such that more frequent and longer usage of punishment will lead to increased probability of behaviour problems. These potentially adverse effects of physical punishment may also carry over into adulthood in the form of increased psychopathology and violent behaviour (Eron, 1996); substance abuse, depression, family violence, and suicide (Afifi, Brownridge, Cox, Sareen, 2006; Straus, 1995; Straus Kantor, 1994). Eron (1996) indicated that the more harshly 8- and 9-year olds we re punished, the more aggressive and antisocial they were in late adolescence and young adulthood. Afifi and colleagues (2006) also found individuals who were physically punished, as compared to those who were not, had higher risk for major depression, alcohol abuse or dependence and externalising problems in adulthood, and these effects were not attenuated after controlling for sociodemographic variables and parental bonding. In addition, Straus (1995) found significant positive correlation between the level of punishment experienced as a child and level of depressive symptoms and thoughts of committing suicide in adulthood, after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), martial violence, and witnessing violence as a child. In the past decade, at least three meta-analyses were conducted to review research on the effects of physical punishment. Larzelere (2000) reviewed a total of 38 studies and found both beneficial (as discussed above) and negative effects of physical punishment. From 17 causally relevant studies, the author highlighted apparent detrimental effects of physical punishment. He first pointed out that physical punishment predicted increased subsequent negative externalising behaviour, supporting the â€Å"violence begets violence† viewpoint. One of the studies reviewed was the controlled longitudinal studies of the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (Larzelere Smith, as cited in Larzelere, 2000), which provided not only consistent but also causally relevant evidence that physical punishment is associated to subsequent increase in antisocial behaviour. Secondly, Larzelere (2000) indicated that physical punishment predicted increased mental health problems. The links between physic al punishment and both increased negative externalising behaviour and mental health problems were further supported by another meta-analysis, which evaluated 88 published works spanning a 62 year period. Gershoff (2002) found that physical punishment was indeed significantly associated to increased aggression, increased delinquency, increased antisocial behaviour, and decreased mental health, to name a few. All 20 studies involving mental health in Gershoffs (2000) meta-analysis found frequency of corporal punishment to be positively and significantly related to a decrease in childrens mental health. Straus and Kantor (1994) reported that after controlling for low SES, those who experienced corporal punishment in adolescence were still at higher risk for depression, suicidal thoughts and alcohol abuse. Although Paolucci and Violato (2004), who conducted another meta-analyses and evaluated 70 studies between 1961 and 2000, did not find exposure to corporal punishment led to increased risk of developing cognitive problems (e.g., suicidal thoughts and attitudes toward violence), they found that people who experienced corporal punishment were at a small but increased risk for developing behavioural (e.g., aggression and antisocial behaviours) and affective problems (e.g., psychological impairment and low self-esteem). Physical punishment appears to have a dampening effect on self-esteem in its victims. However, studies have been inconclusive and evidence-based literature in this area is much thinner, as compared to the large number of published articles on physical punishment and increased externalising behaviours, such as childrens aggression, which is one of the most studied in the literature on parenting (Paolucci Violato, 2004). Only 3 studies (Adams, 1995; Larzelere, Kein, Schumm, Alibrano, 1989; Sears, 1970) cited in Larzeleres (2000) meta-analysis, investigated the association between physical punishment and self-esteem. Specifically, Larzelere et al. (1989) found the amount of spanking received negatively predicted self-esteem but the negative correlations between punishment, self-esteem, and perception of fairness of punishment were reduced to non-significance after controlling for parental positive communication. The other study included in the meta-analysis did not find a significant correlation between physical punishment and subsequent self-esteem (Sears, 1970). Jouberts (1991) study, which was not included in the meta-analysis, also found no evidence indicating spanking to have any effect on childrens self-esteem scores, regardless whether spanking was administered by mothers or fathers, or both. On the other hand, one of the three studies as cited in Larzeleres (2000) meta-analysis found lower self-esteem among 6- to 12-year olds, especially those who were hit with high frequency (twice a week), even after controlling for ethnicity, cognitive enrichment and poverty (Adams, 1995). Furthermore, recent studies, which were not included in the meta-analysis, also found similar results. Using data from 1,397 children, Eamon (2001) found 4- to 9-year-old children who received more frequent spanking exhibited more socio-emotional problems like low self-esteem. In another study, Amato and Fowler (2002) investigated the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and childrens self-esteem, using data collected from 3,400 households with a child within the age range of 5-18. Similarly, parents use of corporal punishment was found to predict lower self-esteem. Bauman and Friedman (1998) argued that physical punishment retards the development of self-esteem, and Paolucci and Violato (2004) used findings of corporal punishment being associated with psychosocial problems, such as depression, as supporting evidence that physical punishment is related to impaired self-esteem. Coercive disciplinary techniques are also linked to decreases in childrens level of confidence and assertiveness, and increases in feelings of humiliation and helplessness (Gershoff, 2002). One explanation for these findings is the fear of punishment makes people attempt to escape. However, when escaping from punishment is not possible, feelings of learned helplessness and depression may develop (Paolucci Violato, 2004). Self-esteem, as defined by Rosenberg (1965), is a positive or negative attitude towards the self. Interestingly, self-esteem stability in childhood and adolescence does not differ between genders (Trzesniewski, Donnellan, Robins, 2003). Research has shown that self-esteem has a pervasive impact on an individuals life in numerous areas. Emotionally, individuals with low self-esteem have a tendency to exhibit higher levels of anxiety, experience more frequent psychosomatic symptoms, feelings of depression, lack of personal acceptance and submissiveness (Battle, 1992). Low self-esteem is also an important predictor for disruptive and maladaptive behaviours (Aunola, Stattin, Nurmi, 2000; Vandergriff Rust, 1989). An individuals social functioning can also be affected by his level of self-esteem. Children with high self-esteem are more popular among peers and participate more actively in social groups, unlike those with low self-esteem, who experience more difficulties forming friendshi ps (Battle, 1992; Growe, 1980). Self-esteem has also been supported by research evidence, to be positively related to academic self-efficacy. This significant relationship is found in Western countries (Jonson-Reid, Davis, Saunders, Williams, Williams, 2005; Smith, Walker, Fields, Brookins, Seary, 1999), as well as in Singapore (Ang, Neubronner, Oh, Leong, 2006). An important trend in the international research focuses on the effects of physical punishment on children (Ripoll- Nà ºÃƒ ±ez Rohner, 2006). Considering that self-esteem has a wide range of influence on an individuals life and the current literature remains inconclusive on the effects physical punishment have on self-esteem, we chose to investigate the relationship between non-abusive physical punishment administered by adolescents main disciplinarian and adolescents level of self-esteem. Self-esteem plays a vital role in an individuals development, and if physical punishment has negative effects on adolescents self-esteem, it is likely that his level of self-esteem will affect his psychosocial and educational development, and his overall well-being. For instance, his academic success and ability to socialise contribute to his current and future well-being. The relationship between physical punishment and adolescents outcome cannot be simply described as two distinct categories, such that physically punished adolescents will experience negative outcomes, and adolescents who have never been physically punished will not. Instead, this relationship may lie on a continuum and the frequency of physical punishment may play an important role in the punishment-outcome link, such that increase in frequency of punishment will lead to increased probability of negative outcomes. Since a dose response towards physical punishment was suggested by Straus et al. (1997), and a positive relationship between the frequency of physical punishment and negative outcomes was concurred by Larzelere (2000) and Gershoff (2002), and more specifically, Adams (1995) and Eamon (2001) found lower self-esteem, especially among those who experienced frequent use of physical punishment, we chose to investigate the punishment-self-esteem link by focusing on the frequency of punishment. With increased frequency of physical punishment, lower self-esteem can be expected. The weight of the existing research seems to favour the viewpoint that non-abusive physical punishment carries with it negative baggage. However, unlike physical abuse, the conclusion that non-abusive physical punishment indeed has detrimental consequences on adolescents well-being cannot be substantiated. Researchers at the opposite end of the debate cite conflicting evidence and physical punishment remains the most controversial topic in the domain of parental discipline (Holden, 2002; Larzelere, 1996). The main debate remains on whether non-abusive physical punishment is completely harmful or it has negative effects only when used within certain conditions. As summarised by Ripoll- Nà ºÃƒ ±ez and Rohner (2006), the â€Å"conditional defenders† of corporal punishment argued that the effects of punishment may be positive, negative, or both depending on the conditions in which it was administered. As proposed in Gershoffs process-context model (2002), the link between physical punishment and its impact on the child is not direct and isolated. Instead, contextual factors of varying levels of influence may moderate the processes linking punishment and child constructs (Gershoff, 2002). This is supported by the fact that majority of the 94% of 3- and 4-year-old Americans who experienced physical punishment did not experience negative outcomes, such as developing into clinically aggressive adults or criminals. Critics of past research argued that many studies which linked physical punishment to negative effects have methodological flaws because they did not take into account the influence of moderating variables, which when included, tended to attenuate the relationship between punishment and negative outcomes (Rohner, Bourque, Elordi, 1996). Since not all individuals who experienced non-abusive physical punishment experienced negative outcomes, the present study further examined two potential moderators of the punishment-self-esteem link: namely, adolescents perceptions on the fairness of physical punishment and caregiver acceptance-rejection. Typically, research in this area has relied on parental reports of physical punishment. However, parents may underreport the use of physical punishment due to social desirability. Parents may feel threaten to disclose the frequency with which they physically punish their children because it is not advocated in contemporary society, hence providing inaccurate data (Shum-Cheung, Hawkins, Lim, 2006). Moreover, if parent is the source of data on both the punishment and childrens behaviours, they may attempt to justify their punishment through the parental report of child behaviour (Bauman Friedman, 1998). Following, we collected retrospective account of physical punishment from the recipients of the disciplinary practice, and further explored the possible moderating effect their cognitive perceptions on the punishment, may exert on the punishment-self-esteem link. The impact of punishment on adolescents is not unidirectional because adolescents are not simply passive recipients of the punishment. Instead how adolescents perceive the punishment may affect the impact it has on their outcomes. As noted by Holden (2002), noticeably absent from research is studies of childrens perceptions and reactions to punishment. It has been suggested that effects of physical punishment may be moderated by the meaning children ascribes to the punishment (Benject Kazdin, 2003). Ignorance of this may lead to an inaccurate picture on the effects of punishment because the key to understanding how physical punishment affects its victims lies in understanding how they react to the punishment physiologically, affectively, and cognitively (Gershoff, 2002). Holden (2002) further posited that this reaction involves at least two processes, namely, immediate physiological and sensory reaction, followed by the secondary cognitive appraisal stage. In line with Ripoll- Nà º à ±ez and Rohners (2006) suggestions on variables that are important in the research of physical punishment and its effects on children, we explored the potential moderating effect of adolescents perceptions of fairness of physical punishment, which has been considered to ameliorate the negative outcomes of punishment (Rohner et al., 1991; Rohner et al., 1996). Grusec and Goodnow (1994) suggested that children, who perceive punishment as fair, will be more willing to accept the intended disciplinary message, which then facilitates internalisation. Since adolescents are the recipients of parental disciplinary practices, the knowledge of their perceptions on the fairness of punishment will open the window to their internal mental processes, which is how they interpret and internalise the punishment. This provides a more complete understanding of the relationship between punishment and self-esteem. Concerns regarding whether adolescents are mature enough to make sensible judgments abo ut the fairness of discipline can be allayed because Konstantareas and Desbois (2001) found 4-year-old preschoolers capable of making judgments about the fairness of discipline by mothers, and in a study conducted in Singapore, parents and 10- to 12-year-old childrens responses on fairness of discipline were similar (Shum-Cheung et al., 2006). Therefore, if adolescents perceive physical punishment as fair, the effects of punishment on their self-esteem may not be deleterious. Following, the negative association between physical punishment and self-esteem can be expected to be stronger at lower levels, as compared with higher levels of perceived fairness. Little is also known about the conditions under which punishment occurs (Bauman Friedman, 1998) and if information regarding the context in which the punishment is meted out is not captured, only a snapshot of the impact of punishment on adolescents will be known. Opponents of physical punishment have acknowledged that physical punishment by itself is unlikely to produce negative child outcomes. However, when combined with other risk factors in the family, negative effects of physical punishment may surface (Bauman Friedman, 1998). Therefore, certain factors in the adolescents family may influence the cognitive appraisal process of the punishment and, consequently, buffer the negative effects. Corporal punishment is considered to be beneficial when administered by emotionally supportive parents who share positive interactions with their children (Paolucci Violato, 2004). As discussed above, Larzelere et al. (1989) reported that positive parental communication moderated the punishment-self-esteem link. Therefore, information regarding other aspects of parenting, such as the warmth dimension, will provide a much fuller understanding towards the relationship between physical punishment and self-esteem. As construed in the parental acceptance-rejection theory (PARTheory), parental acceptance and rejection form the warmth dimension of parenting (Rohner, 1991). Perceived parental acceptance-rejection may be one of the most important parenting dimensions to consider because no cultural or ethnic group was found where perceived parental acceptance-rejection failed to correlate with the predicted personality dispositions (Rohner Britner, 2002). PARTheory predicted rejected children, as compared to children who perceived themselves as being accepted, are more likely to have an impaired sense of self-esteem, amidst other negative effects (Rohner, 1991; Rohner Britner, 2002). Rohner (1991) used Meads (1934) significant other concept to explain how parental rejection may affect self-esteem. PARTheory assumed that everyone tends to view ourselves as we imagine â€Å"significant others† view us. Therefore, if parents who are childrens most significant other reject them, they are more likely to define themselves as unworthy, and consequently develop an overall sense of negative self-evaluation, including feelings of negative self-esteem and self-adequacy (Rohner, 1991). Although the term â€Å"parent† is used in PARTheory, Rohner (1991) explained it refers to the major caregiver of the child, not necessarily the parents. Therefore, we used the term â€Å"caregiver† instead of â€Å"parent† in this study. Variations in perceived caregiver acceptance-rejection among adolescents may magnify or minimise the effects of physical punishment and this has been supported by cross-cultural evidence. Rohner et al. (1991), for example, found severe physical punishment to be related to psychological maladjustment among Kittitian youths and the effects became more substantial when it was paired with caregiver rejection. Similarly, results from another study conducted in Georgia showed that the association between perceived harshness of punishment and psychological maladjustment disappeared once perceptions of caregiver acceptance-rejection were accounted for (Rohner et al., 1996). In the context of Singapore, perceived parental acceptance-rejection was also found to play an important moderating role. Sim and Ong (2005) found perceived fathers rejection moderated the link between slapping and daughters level of aggression, and perceived mothers rejection moderated the canning-aggression link among S ingapore Chinese preschoolers of both genders. All these studies uniformly showed that childrens perception of caregiver acceptance-rejection has a significant impact on the association between physical punishment and its outcomes. Thus, at higher compared to lower levels of perceived caregiver rejection, a stronger negative association between physical punishment and self-esteem can be expected. We collected data on adolescents perceptions of caregiver acceptance and rejection, and frequency of physical punishment by their main disciplinarian, rather than their main caregiver. This is because our study used a Singapore Chinese sample, and it is common within this group that the main disciplinarian may not be the main caregiver. In Chinese societies, traditional roles of disciplinarian and caregiver are respectively played by fathers and mothers, and this role differentiation still applies in Singapore (Quah, 1999). In cases where the disciplinarian and caregiver are different persons, the adolescent may experience more punishment from the disciplinarian as compared to the caregiver, and the impact of punishment from the main disciplinarian will not be reflected if punishment administered by the caregiver was measured. Since the main disciplinarian is the adult who administers punishment, effects of punishment may be moderated by the adolescents perceived acceptance from his main caregiver, who plays the key caring role and spends the most time with him. Collecting data on adolescents perceptions of caregiver acceptance-rejection allowed us to examine the punishment-self-esteem link through the relationship between caregiver and adolescent. As pointed out by Larzelere (2000), one of the needs in the research on physical punishment is for studies to take a developmental perspective because reviews by Larzelere (2000) and Gershoff (2002) found outcomes of punishment varied by the childs age. For example, Gershoff (2002) found that with increased age, the association between corporal punishment and aggressive and antisocial behaviours became stronger. Following, we used a retrospective design to investigate the association between physical punishment and self-esteem, and the impact the two proposed moderators may have on this link, at two age frames, namely when the individual was 11- to 12-years old (early adolescence) and 15- to 16-years old (middle adolescence). Although physical punishment is at its zenith when children are aged 3-5 (Straus Stewart, 1999), and its frequency decreases as children grow older, physical punishment is still prevalent during adolescence (Straus et al., 1997). Straus (1994) found more than 6 0% of parents in America reported hitting 10- to 12-year olds, and even at ages 15-17, one out of four adolescents is still physically punished. The two age frames were chosen partly because this study was retrospective in nature, and memories of punishment incidents during early childhood may be weak due to the long time passage that passed. Additionally, an average Singapore student aged 11- to 12-years old and 15- to 16-years old, is in preparation for the national examinations, namely, the Primary School Leaving Examination and GCE ‘O Levels, respectively. Being the periods of their major examinations, memories during these periods may be much clearer and distinct, and this will provide the study with more accurate data. Children below age 8 have not developed the concept of global self-esteem, thus another reason for focusing at these two age frames is that at ages 11-12 and 15-16, adolescents will have developed the ability to â€Å"view themselves in terms of stable dispositions, which permits them to combine their separate self-evaluations into an overall sense of self-esteem† (Berk, 2006, p.449). Moreover, unlike in early childhood, individual differences in self-esteem from early to middle adolescence become increasingly stable (Trzesniweski et al., 2003), which allowed us to explore the punishment-self-esteem link more precisely. According to Eriksons stages of psychosocial development (as cited in Berk, 2006), he organised life into eight stages that extend from birth to death, of which two stages were related to the present study. During the latency stage, where 11- and 12-year olds will be categorized, they enter school and are required to develop a sense of competence through the social interactions in school. With a wider range of socialisation opportunities, their relationships with parents may no longer be the most significant but it remains influential because little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers may lead them to doubt their ability to succeed (Berk, 2006). However, 15- and 16-year olds are in the adolescence stage, where the need to develop an independent identity that is separated from the family, becomes the key developmental task, and relationships with peer groups become the most significant relationship. Hence the attenuation of familial influence for adolescents aged 15-1 6 may decrease as compared to when they were 11- to 12-years old. Moreover, 15- and 16-year olds fall in Piagets formal operational stage, which represents the apex of cognitive development (Siegler Richards, 1982). Unlike the subsequent stage, 11- and 12-year olds are in the concrete operational stage and can only â€Å"operate on reality†. But formal operational adolescents developed the ability for abstract thinking and can engage in hypothetico-deductive reasoning and propositional thought, to conjure more general logical rules through internal reflection (Berk, 2006). Additionally, they can apply their abstract reason abilities to all areas of life (Siegler Richards, 1982). Following, it may be the case that adolescents perceptions of caregiver acceptance-rejection play a greater role, than perceived fairness of punishment, in moderating the link between punishment and self-esteem, when they are aged 11 to 12. Because their social circle though expanded, still centres around their parents and how accepted or rejected they perceived th eir caregiver to be may still play a significant role unlike during middle adolescence. At ages 15-16, adolescents perceived fairness of punishment may matter more than perceived caregiver acceptance because their relationship with their caregiver is not the most critical factor in their psychosocial development. Additionally, their growing need for independence from their parents as well as their capacities to think through their own best interests with their greater cognitive awareness, may influence them to place more emphasis on their personal thoughts, and on their friends views but less on what their caregiver thinks of them. Within the realm of punishment research, it is also important to acknowledge the existing attitudes towards physical punishment within the particular culture. As pointed out by proponents of physical punishment, aside from the family, the cultural context also buffers potential negative consequences of physical punishment (Bauman Friedman, 1998). Acceptance of physical punishment varies across cultures and it may contribute to variations in child outcomes across different groups because cultural values and beliefs affect whether punishment is used more instrumentally or emotionally, and how children emotionally respond to it (Gershoff, 2002; Larzelere, 2000). Larezeleres (2000) highlighted five studies which presented evidence of significantly differential effects of spanking by ethnicity. Deater-Deckard et al. (1996), for example, found maternal use of physical punishment predicted externalising behaviours only for European American, but not African American children. The authors s uggested that this may be due to the stronger acceptance and preference for physical punishment among African American, in contrast to European American parents, hence affecting the manner in which punishment is used and childrens perceptions of its appropriateness. Similarly, Gunnoe and Mariner (1997) found spanking to be negatively related to African American girls later aggressive behaviours, but positively related to European American boys later aggressive behaviours. Majority of the studies, which investigated the link between physical punishment and self-esteem, were conducted in Western countries, such as America. However, attitudes towards childrearing in Western countries are different from those of the Asian cultures in Singapore (Tong, Elliot, Tan, 1996). Unlike Western cultures, which display a lower tolerance of physical punishment, this form of discipline is popular within the Asian culture. â€Å"Spare the rod and spoil the child† is an old saying which reflects the prevalent parental attitude, especially among Singapore Chinese parents, who continue using caning to discipline children and view physical punishment as an effective disciplinary method (Elliot, Thomas, Chan, Chow, 2000). Being a multi-ethnic society, ethnic differences exist in childrearing techniques, which may lead to differences in usage of physical punishment across ethnic groups. A study conducted by Quah (1999) on the Singapore family found Chinese parents t ended to use physical punishment more than other parents, while Malay and Indian parents were most likely to use reasoning, and authority was most frequently used by parents in the group Other. Considering that ethnicity may affect the outcome of physical punishment, this research recruited only Singapore Chinese participants.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Critical Thinking And Reflective Thinking

Critical Thinking And Reflective Thinking Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. It entails the examination of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning: purpose, problem, or question-at-issue; assumptions; concepts; empirical grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions; implications and consequences; objections from alternative viewpoints; and frame of reference. Critical thinking   in being responsive to variable subject matter, issues, and purposes   is incorporated in a family of interwoven modes of thinking, among them: scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking, and philosophical thinking. Critical thinking can be seen as having two components: 1) a set of information and belief generating and processing skills, and 2) the habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to guide behaviour. It is thus to be contrasted with: 1) the mere acquisition and retention of information alone, because it involves a particular way in which information is sought and treated; 2) the mere possession of a set of skills, because it involves the continual use of them; and 3) the mere use of those skills (as an exercise) without acceptance of their results. Critical thinking varies according to the motivation underlying it. When grounded in selfish motives, it is often manifested in the skilful manipulation of ideas in service of ones own, or ones groups, vested interest. As such it is typically intellectually flawed, however pragmatically successful it might be. When grounded in fair-mindedness and intellectual integrity, it is typically of a higher order intellectually, though subject to the charge of idealism by those habituated to its selfish use. Critical thinking of any kind is never universal in any individual; everyone is subject to episodes of undisciplined or irrational thought. Its quality is therefore typically a matter of degree and dependent on , among other things, the quality and depth of experience in a given domain of thinking or with respect to a particular class of questions. No one is a critical thinker through-and-through, but only to such-and-such a degree, with such-and-such insights and blind spots, subject to such-and-such tendencies towards self-delusion. For this reason, the development of critical thinking skills and dispositions is a life-long endeavour. Another Brief Conceptualization of Critical Thinking Critical thinking is self-guided, self-disciplined thinking which attempts to reason at the highest level of quality in a fair-minded way.   People who think critically consistently attempt to live rationally, reasonably, empathically.  Ã‚   They are keenly aware of the inherently flawed nature of human thinking when left unchecked.   They strive to diminish the power of their egocentric and sociocentric tendencies.   They use the intellectual tools that critical thinking offers concepts and principles that enable them to analyze, assess, and improve thinking.   They work diligently to develop the intellectual virtues of intellectual integrity, intellectual humility, intellectual civility, intellectual empathy, intellectual sense of justice and confidence in reason.   They realize that no matter how skilled they are as thinkers, they can always improve their reasoning abilities and they will at times fall prey to mistakes in reasoning, human irrationality, prejudices, bi ases, distortions, uncritically accepted social rules and taboos, self-interest, and vested interest.   They strive to improve the world in whatever ways they can and contribute to a more rational, civilized society.  Ã‚   At the same time, they recognize the complexities often inherent in doing so.   They avoid thinking simplistically about complicated issues and strive to appropriately consider the rights and needs of relevant others.   They recognize the complexities in developing as thinkers, and commit themselves to life-long practice toward self-improvement.   They embody the Socratic principle:   The unexamined life is not worth living, because they realize that many unexamined lives together result in an uncritical, unjust, dangerous world. ~ Linda Elder, September, 2007 Why Critical Thinking? The Problem Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or down-right prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated. A Definition Critical thinking is that mode of thinking about any subject, content, or problem in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skilfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. The Result A well cultivated critical thinker: raises vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely; gathers and assesses relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively comes to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards; thinks open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and communicates effectively with others in figuring out solutions to complex problems. Critical thinking is, in short, self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and self-corrective thinking. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem solving abilities and a commitment to overcome our native egocentrism and sociocentrism.   (Taken from Richard Paul and Linda Elder, The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools, Foundation for Critical Thinking Press, 2008). Available from : Both Critical Thinking and Reflective Thinking Critical thinking and reflective thinking are often used synonymously.   Critical thinking is used to describe: the use of those cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcomethinking that is purposeful, reasoned and goal directed the kind of thinking involved in solving problems, formulating inferences, calculating likelihoods, and making decisions when the thinker is using skills that are thoughtful and effective for the particular context and type of thinking task. Critical thinking is sometimes called directed thinking because it focuses on a desired outcome. Halpern (1996). Reflective thinking, on the other hand, is a part of the critical thinking process referring specifically to the processes of analyzing and making judgments about what has happened. Dewey (1933) suggests that reflective thinking is an active, persistent, and careful consideration of a belief or supposed form of knowledge, of the grounds that support that knowledge, and the further conclusions to which that knowledge leads. Learners are aware of and control their learning by actively participating in reflective thinking assessing what they know, what they need to know, and how they bridge that gap during learning situations. In summary, critical thinking involves a wide range of thinking skills leading toward desirable outcomes and reflective thinking focuses on the process of making judgments about what has happened. However, reflective thinking is most important in prompting learning during complex problem-solving situations because it provides students with an opportunity to step back and think about how they actually solve problems and how a particular set of problem solving strategies is appropriated for achieving their goal. Characteristics of environments and activities that prompt and support reflective thinking: Provide enough wait-time for students to reflect when responding to inquiries. Provide emotionally supportive environments in the classroom encouraging re-evaluation of conclusions. Prompt reviews of the learning situation, what is known, what is not yet known, and what has been learned. Provide authentic tasks involving ill-structured data to encourage reflective thinking during learning activities. Prompt students reflection by asking questions that seek reasons and evidence. Provide some explanations to guide students thought processes during explorations. Provide a less-structured learning environment that prompts students to explore what they think is important. Provide social-learning environments such as those inherent in peer-group works and small group activities to allow students to see other points of view. Provide reflective journal to write down students positions, give reasons to support what they think, show awareness of opposing positions and the weaknesses of their own positions. Reflective Thinking Reflective thinking involves personal consideration of ones own learning. It considers personal achievements and failures and asks what worked, what didnt, and what needs improvement (Given, 2002). It asks the learner to think about her own thinking. Reflection is the key that opens the door to understanding ourselves in relation to core ethical values (Beland, 2003, p.15). Similarly, Lickona states that moral reflection is necessary to develop the cognitive side of character -the important part of our moral selves that enables us to make moral judgments about our own behaviour and that of others (Lickona, 1991, p.229).   This type of reflection enables learners to gain self-knowledge, to demonstrate their understanding of worthwhile moral values, take on the perspective of others, to reflect on why some actions are morally better than others, and to consider alternatives and consequences of actions. Whether reflection is verbal, written, or drawn it is a key strategy for learning and a major tool for character education.   Brain research suggests that brief periods of downtime aid in association, consolidate learning, and imprint memory (Jenson, 1998 as cited in Beland, 2003, p.38).   Reflection can be done through journal writing, keeping a daily diary, essay writing, drawing, and talking in pairs. Reflection can follow a peer discussion. Reflection can be in response to a journal prompt about a character in literature. Reflection on compelling literature and narratives help us bridge the struggle to gain an understanding of the ideas and reasoning of others. Reflection aids the learner in making connections between the moral and social issues in the story, the struggle of the stories characters, and their own struggles to lead a moral life. Reflection can occur in response to academic work and as a follow-up to a cooperative activity when students are asked to reflect upon how well their group did or did not work together. It can be used to review the day, as a follow-up for class meetings, as part of goal setting, and as part of a service learning activity. Students can reflect upon an authentic issue faced by students and the school community such as the impact of cliques, academic honesty or improving sportsmanship.   Reflection can be used in a number of ways that ask students to think about and respond to the learning. Teachers can model reflection by sharing their own learning regarding a moral issue.   This shows students that character development is a life-long journey and that, in this pursuit, it is the effort and the striving toward an ethical life that is important. (Beland, 2003, p.16)

Monday, August 19, 2019

Reaction Rate Investigation :: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation

Reaction Rate Investigation Planning I am trying to work out the rate of reaction between marble chips (calcium carbonate) and Hydrochloric acid. This will be my plan of how to carry out my investigation. There are many factors, which I could change in this experiment. These are 1) Concentration. An increase in concentration means there are more particles. More particles means there will be more collisions. 2) Surface Area. Breaking the solid into smaller pieces will increase the surface area exposed to the other reactant. 3) Temperature. Increasing the temperature will cause the particles to move faster. When particles move faster, more collisions occur and the collisions are more violent. This should increase the reaction rate. All of these factors will affect the reaction rate, but I have decided to change the concentration of Hydrochloric acid. This will determine the rate of reaction by measuring the amount of Carbon Dioxide given off. As I will only change one factor, I will have to keep other factors constant. These will be: - 1) The temperature 2) The size of the marble chip 3) The same apparatus will be used throughout the experiment I predict that as the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases and it becomes more concentrated, the more Carbon Dioxide will be given off. As the concentration increases the chip will fizz more violently. When the concentration has been doubled, the reaction will have doubled. The reaction rate can be increased if the concentration of the reactant is raised. As there are more particles to react with in a higher concentration of acid, the chance of an effective collision goes up. I have performed similar experiments and have acquired this equation: Calcium + Hydrochloric Calcium + Carbon + Water =============================================== Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide The reaction rate is also known as the collision theory. This is when successfully 2 particles collide with each other and give off a successful product. This is as shown below: For my experiment I will use 5 different concentrations of hydrochloric acid. These are: 0.5M 1M 1.5M 2M 2.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe Essay -- Moll Flanders Defoe Essays Pape

Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe Moll Flanders was a product of her vanity and pride. She devoted her entire life to achieving some sort of wealth and social status. Her pride encompassed her entire life and affected all of her life decisions. Moll sacrificed many things, including love, religion, self-respect, and peace of mind, in order to attain a sort of affluence. Eventually, Moll achieves her desires and retires a gentlewoman in America, but her journey definitely took a serious toll on her life. In the end, one must ask the question of whether Moll's lifestyle and decisions were the right ones. Did the ends justify the means? Did Moll's chosen path lead to a life of satisfaction or did the pain, paranoia, and emotional trauma that came along the way extract a price that is much greater then the wealth that she eventually achieved? The answer is that the suffering that Moll experienced was not worth the final outcome. Although Moll reached her goals in the end, she would have had a more fulfilling and gratifyi ng life had she suppressed her vanity and price and accepted her role in society and lived accordingly. Moll began life in the low class. Not much nobility or status was expected of the orphan born in Newgate Prison, and in English society, there was little chance for Moll to escape this class. But Moll had the blessing of the kind "nurse" who raised her, kept her out of the dreaded servitude, and found a high class family for Moll to live and grow up with. Moll was a beautiful girl and thanks to her "nurse" and this family, she was well along the road to truly becoming a gentlewoman. Had events continued flawlessly from here, Moll might have achieved her goal without any pain, suffering, or remorse. Unfortunately, this was not to be the case. Moll's problems began with her relationship with the eldest brother. Her vanity and egoism allowed her to be seduced thus creating a serious conflict when the youngest brother sought her hand in marriage. Moll soon faced the dilemma of marrying Robin or faring for herself. Opting for financial security, Moll married a man whom she did not love. After Robin's death, Moll once again sought to marry a well to do man. She did just that and lived extravagantly for a few years until her husband was imprisoned for his debts. Once again, Moll was placed in a position of faring for herself or marrying... ... right, it was still an unnecessary risk. Moll and Jemmy had enough money to survive comfortably on. Was a little extra money worth risking her family and the only man she truly loved? Once again, Molls vanity and pride risked the happy life that she had found. We have seen how Moll let her vanity and pride shape her life. She found what she wanted in the end, but it took a mighty toll. She suffered through numerous relationships, each one leaving her in a position worse off then before. She had to deal with the constant paranoia and fear that is associated with being a thief. Yet she couldn't give up that lifestyle. She even had to face down her own death when she was sentenced to the gallows because of her actions. Moll made it through all of this and finally seemed to find happiness. But once again she was willing to risk all that she had in order to satisfy her vanity and greed. Moll had several opportunities to suppress her vanity and turn her life in a more positive direction. Doing so would have prevented a lot of pain and trauma. Unfortunately, Moll was never capable of overcoming this pride and thus had to suffer all the ill effects that were associated with it.

Lois Lowrys The Giver Should Not be Censored Essay -- Lois Lowry Give

Lois Lowry's The Giver Should Not be Censored      Ã‚  Ã‚   Parents in modern society routinely attempt to shield their children from what they view as evils of the world. Adults censor television they watch, conversations they have, and books they read. In so doing, parents feel that they are guarding their children from knowledge that they may not be emotionally capable of handling. However, it also is imperative in the highly competitive atmosphere of modern society for youth to become prepared for the pressures of adulthood. Ironically, the dangerous knowledge parents believe they are hiding from their children inevitably is learned through exposure. In the domain of literature, a parent may feel that a particular book attracts attention to inappropriate or taboo issues, neglecting the positive aspects of that same work. This is the situation that has developed with Lois Lowry's The Giver, a book opposed by parents across the nation. Throughout the novel, despite challenges that have emerged based in her use of e uphemistic expressions for euthanasia within a utopian society, the author nonetheless demonstrates the importance of experiential learning and the valuable lessons to be learned by working through the negative aspects of life.    Parents have raised protest against The Giver because it references euthanasia; a concept many believe corrupts youthful readers' minds and values. Indeed, the author initially does minimize the significance of mercy killing by euphemistically denoting it as, "release" (139). However, when Jonas learns the true definition of this term, he grows determined to awaken the community to what it is condoning. He realizes that the process of release is a "feeling of terri... ...ustrates the significance of developing and experiencing a balanced perspective on life. However, this parental challenge misunderstands that euphemism is used as a literary device to actually convey the horror of infanticide. Lowery further conveys the poverty of emotional experience that emerges when words are used superficially and without meaning. The Giver further demonstrates through the development of the protagonist, Jonas, that it is necessary to experience the negative aspects of life in order to enjoy the good life has to offer. It reveals that the price paid for the illusion of safety in a utopian environment is the demoralization of life and its endless possibilities, or, as more euphemistically referred to in today's society, no pain, no gain. Work Cited: Lowry, L.   The Giver. New York, NY: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, 1993.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Dismissal Meeting Essay

1. Propose three ways that a manager can cope with any negative emotions that may accompany an employee layoff. Layoffs are tough for both the employee being laid off and the company for which he/she worked. The situation causes so much uncertainty amongst the remaining employees. The feeling among the employees is; if this happened to them this could happen to me as well. According to Johnson (n.d.), â€Å"There is a major disruption in the status quo; relationships are severed, work is redistributed with a probable increase in everyone’s workload.† We as human fear the unknown and will ultimately feel that it’s bound to happen again and will remain on edge until reassured it won’t happen. Three ways the manager can cope with any negative emotions are: communicate with remaining employees, dispel any rumors, and allow employees to vent. During these difficult times it’s important that management has constant communication with their staff. Accordin g to Butcher (2008), â€Å"Most employees want to know what will be happening to them, especially whether they will they be laid off.† Each one of the surviving employees wants to know what’s going on no one wants to be left out. When there is something perceived to be a cover up the employees are uneasy. When the employees are uneasy panic and hysteria sets in and production levels go down. The moment employees get wind of the layoffs or terminations the rumors will start to fly. It all stems from fear of losing their jobs. Employees become untrustworthy of management, so until management presents themselves as trustworthy, employees will continue to talk and spread rumors. Management has to step and in let the employees know the truth about what has happened and what will come next. If there is projected to be more layoffs then management should let them know. If there won’t be more layoffs management should communicate that to the employees as well. The best coping mechanism for negative emotions would be to let the  person vent. If management allows the employees to vent, this will lessen the fru stration amongst the remaining members of the team. Management should conduct a meeting with the employees and allow them to share their feelings. Once management has an idea of how the employees feel they can make proper action to deal with the situation. Communication shouldn’t be one sided. Each side has to share what they believe is important. 2. Describe a step-by-step process of conducting the dismissal meeting. There are many steps to disciplining and employee. Usually, the last step in the discipline process is the dismissal of the employee. In a situation, where the employer doesn’t believe the employee should continue employment with the company the dismissal process begins. According to Heathfield (n.d.), â€Å"Sometimes, however, terminating a staff person’s employment is the best step to take for your organization.† Often times, when the employee isn’t a best fit for the organization management has to make the decision to trim the fat. Once it’s been determined the employee will be terminated for whatever reason. Whether it is for cause or non-performance, there is a process in which this shall be conducted. The manager has to schedule a meeting, inform the employee of termination, allow the employee to speak, and collect company property and have the employee escorted out. The manager has to be diligent in scheduling the meeting. Most often practice is to schedule the meeting for the end of the day. This allows the manager to minimize the chance the termination of the employee may disturb the work environment. In the event, the employee has a good relationship with the other employees the others may become upset. The meeting should be scheduled for the employee on a day in which the employee works. Depending on the preferred method of communication the manager should contact the employee as soon as possible. Once the meeting has been determined the manager should pick a location in which the meeting can be conducted. The preference is a location in which there will be some type of barrier between the manager and the employee. The manager should position the room in such a way that the employee doesn’t have to cross paths once the meeting has ended. While the meeting is going the manager should open the meeting explaining the reason for which they are meeting. After the manager has discussed with the employee the reason for termination it is important to allow the employee to express his/her feelings. During this time the  employee is allowed to say something in his/her defense. Also allows the employee to vent frustration about the termination. This will lessen the likelihood that employee will try some sort of retaliation. Additionally, is there was some misunderstanding on either the manager or the employees part this would be the time to clear it up. The next step is a combination of two, have the employee return company property. Someone should accompany the employee to his/her work area/location to assure company property has been properly returned and his/her personal property has been gathered. Making sure the personal property has been attained will deter the former employee from coming back. The second part would to have the former employee escorted out. In situations like these, it may be best to have someone the employee has a close relationship escort them out. 3. Determine the compensation that the factitious company may provide to the separated employee. Majority of the people in the workforce today, are doing so because they have to. Everyone has bills and expenses that have to be paid regularly. With this being said, everyone needs a steady income. Without a steady income individuals will fall behind and face major issues. So when it comes to employees being laid off from work employers should assist with some type of temporary compensation. In most cases, employers provide severance pay; pay accrued leave, and unemployment benefits. Most employers have severance packages set up for employees in the event the employment has to be terminated earlier than expected. According to Yuille, (2012), â€Å"The severance pay offered is typically one to two weeks for every year worked but can be more.† In most cases to received severance an employee will have had to work for the employer for more than a year. Employers should offer pretty reasonable packages depending on the job market and the economic climate. Most employers offer a benefits package for its employees. These are the things that attract talent to a particular employer. Within the benefits package there should be a leave option. The leave option should be a reasonable about of leaver per time worked. In the government workforce, when employment is terminated the amount of leave not taken is paid out at the rate in which the person works based on the number of hours of leave. Unemployment benefits mainly focus around two major parts of employee compensation and health benefits. The first of the two is  the weekly unemployment payment usually received from the state in which the person has been employed for the amount of time in which it requires to receive the benefit. The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) allows for temporary continuation of health insurance. However, it isn’t subsidized like it would have been while employed. The individual has to pay a much higher premium when paying as unemployed. 4. Using Microsoft Word or an equivalent such as Open Office, create a chart that depicts the timeline of the disbursement of the compensation. See Appendix A 5. Predict three ways that this layoff may affect the company. In most cases, companies lay off employees to save money. Most times layoffs are due to slow in production or a drop in revenue. It’s always ugly business on both ends of the deal. The employees are out of a job and the company is out of workers. Three ways layoffs may affect a company are: lower moral, loss in production, and cost to retrain. When there is a layoff the surviving employees tend to become a bit worried about what will happen to them next. According to Matthews (2002), â€Å"The effects of layoffs on surviving employees have a less obvious, but still important, short-term financial impact. Morale directly affects productivity.† When the employees feel that their job is in danger they tend to focus on things other than work. Production is the main focus of any company’s operation. Production is what makes money for the company. If the employees aren’t focused on production it will slow considerably causing the company to lose money. The effects of the layoff will cause the company to lose more money than they anticipated. In the long run, the company will lose money on production due to low morale and lack of focus. Once production starts to pick up again the company will need to hire more workers. This boost in production will cause the company to need more workers to handle the load. The money spent on recruiting and training will absorb the money that was supposed to be saved by the company. Matthews also said, â€Å"The employer will pay a premium price for attracting valuable replacements, including the cost of recruiting and screening candidates.† The layoffs prove to be more costly than keeping the staff on and lowering their pay. References Butcher, D. (2008, November 13). 5 Strategies for managing employees after layoffs. Industry market trends. Industry market trends rss. Retrieved from Heathfield, S. (n.d.). How to fire with compassion and class. human resources. Retrieved from Johnson, D. W. (n.d.). The emotional impact of lay-offs and non-renewals. University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 10, 2014, from Matthews, C. (2002, July 19). The real cost of layoffs by carole matthews Retrieved from Yuille, B. (2012, September 24). The layoff payoff: A severance package. Investopedia. Retrieved from